Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 271–281 | Cite as

Growth regulators affect primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis in Madagaskar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) at morphological and biochemical levels

  • A. Junaid
  • A. MujibEmail author
  • M. P. Sharma
  • Wei Tang
Original Paper


An efficient somatic embryogenesis system has been established in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don in which primary and secondary embryogenic calluses were developed from hypocotyls and primary cotyledonary somatic embryos (PCSEs), respectively. Two types of calluses were different in morphology and growth behaviour. Hypocotyl-derived embryogenic callus (HEC) was friable and fast-growing, while secondary callus derived from PCSE was compact and slow-growing. HEC differentiated into somatic embryos which proliferated quickly on medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg l−1) and BA (1.5 mg l−1). Although differentiation and proliferation of somatic embryos were faster in primary HEC, maturation and germination efficiency were better in somatic embryos developed from primary cotyledonary somatic embryo-derived secondary embryogenic callus (PCSEC). At the biochemical level, two somatic embryogenesis systems were different. Both primary and secondary/adventive somatic embryogenesis and the role of plant growth regulators in two modes of somatic embryo formation have been discussed.


Amino acid Catharanthus roseus Protein Somatic embryogenesis Sugars 



Analysis of variance




2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid


Chlorophenoxyacetic acid


Gibberellic acid


Hypocotyl-derived embryogenic callus


HEC-derived somatic embryo


Indole-3-acetic acid


α-naphthaleneacetic acid


Murashige and Skoog’s (1962) medium


Primary cotyledonary somatic embryo


PCSE-derived secondary embryogenic callus


Somatic embryogenesis



We wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript, and similarly we are highly grateful to the editor for his critical reading and editing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cellular Differentiation and Molecular Genetics Section, Department of BotanyHamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Howell Science ComplexEast Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA

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