Skip to main content
Log in

Performance, genetic diversity and inheritance of fruit colour and shape in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Limited variability in commercially cultivated eggplant spp. has led to the exploration of traditional and cultivated varietal collections as an important strategy for the development of superior-quality hybrids with effective biodiversity conservation. Five parents and 20 F1s of eggplant were characterized using 12 quantitative traits. The fruits were segregated into two groups; i.e., based on their skin colour (purple, striped, and green) and shape (long, round, oblong) while the variation for selected quantitative traits were observed across the germplasm. Analysis of variance revealed a wide range of variability for the traits. Marketable yield per plant was significantly correlated with the number of marketable fruits per plant, harvest duration and number of marketable fruits per node indicating that direct selection based on these parameters might be sufficient for the improvement of other traits which were independent. The first three principal components explained approximately 85.7% of the total variation in eggplant for 12 quantitative traits. Research on the inheritance of fruit colour revealed the presence of a duplicate type of gene action and monogenic inheritance in the crosses viz., Res-2 × Arka Nidhi and Hisar Shyamal × Res-1, respectively. However, duplicate and inhibitory types of gene action were observed in Hisar Shyamal × Res-1 and Arka Nidhi × Hisar Shyamal, respectively, for the fruit shape. Hence, for a particular cross based on overall performance, fruit colour and fruit shape, a specific breeding strategy should be adopted to develop superior hybrids with diverse features.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Akhtar S, Kumari R, Solankey SS, Baranwal DK (2019) Phenotypic stability in brinjal genotypes. J Crop Weed 15(3):79–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akpan NM, Ogbonna P, Onyia V, Okechukwu E, Atugwu A, Dominic IO (2016) Studies on the variability and combining ability for improved growth and yield of local eggplant genotypes (Solanum melongena L.). Notulae Sci Biol 8(2):226–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akshay DA, Praneetha S, Vethamoni PI, Rajeswari S (2018) Mean performance of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes under Tamil Nadu condition. J Agric Ecol 6:47–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ansari SF, Mehta N, Ansari S, Gavel JP (2011) Variability studies in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in Chhattisgarh plains. Electron J Plant Breed 2(2):275–281

    Google Scholar 

  • Begum MNS, Shirazy BJ, Mahbub MM, Siddikee MA (2017) Performance of brinjal (Solanum melongena) genotypes through genetic variability analysis. Am J Plant Biol 3:22–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Cericola F, Portis E, Toppino L, Barchi L, Acciarri N, Ciriaci T, Sala T, Rotino GR, Lanteri S (2013) The population structure and diversity of eggplant from Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. PLoS One 8(9):e73702

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chauhan A, Chandel KS, Singh SP (2017) Studies on correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) involving bacterial wilt resistant genotypes. Vegetos 30(4):118–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Damnjanović J, Girek Z, Milojević J, Zečević V, Živanović T, Ugrinović M, Pavlović S (2022) Assessment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes and selection of parameters for better yield. Chem Proc 10(1):31

    Google Scholar 

  • Dasmohapatra A, Sharma D (2019) Mean performance and variability analysis in long fruited brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) for Chhattisgarh. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 8:28–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta RA, Ram CN, Chakravati SK, Deo C, Vishwakarma MK, Arya R, Pal B (2018) Studies on variability, heritability and genetic advance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). J Pharmacognosy Phytochem 7(1S):3195–3198

    Google Scholar 

  • Islam MT, Chhanda RA, Pervin N, Hossain MA, Chowdhury RU (2018) Characterization and genetic diversity of brinjal germplasm. Bangladesh J Agric Res 43(3):499–512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • José RS, Sánchez MC, Cámara MM, Prohens J (2013) Composition of eggplant cultivars of the occidental type and implications for the improvement of nutritional and functional quality. Int J Food Sci Technol 48(12):2490–2499

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kamani JM, Monpara BA, Dhameliya HR (2007) Inheritance of certain traits in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Natl J Plant Improv 9(1):32–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Kandoliya UK, Bajaniya VK, Bhadja NK, Bodar NP, Golakiya BA (2015) Antioxidant and nutritional components of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit grown in Saurastra region. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4(2):806–813

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karim MR, Rahman MM, Quamruzzaman AKM (2016) Genetic divergence in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes. Bangladesh J Agric Res 41(3):433–439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Konyak WL, Kanaujia SP, Jha A, Chaturvedi HP, Ananda A (2020) Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of brinjal. SAARC J Agric 18(1):13–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar SR, Arumugam T (2013) Correlation and path coefficient analysis for some yield-related traits in F2 segregating population of eggplant. Int J Veg Sci 19(4):334–341

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar SR, Arumugam T, Premalakshmi V (2012) Evaluation and variability studies in local types of brinjal for yield and quality (Solanum melongena L.). Electron J Plant Breed 3(4):977–982

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar SR, Arumugam T, Premalakshmi V, Anandakumar CR, Rajavel DS (2013) Out breeding for yield and horticultural attributes in indigenous eggplant germplasm. Afr J Agric Res 8(29):4099–4110

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar SR, Arumugam T, Ulaganathan V, Kumar SR (2016a) Genetic diversity in eggplant germplasm by principal component analysis. SABRAO J Breed Genet 48(2):162–171

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar R, Singh SP, Kumar A (2016b) Performance of two brinjal varieties under open field and naturally ventilated polyhouse conditions in cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Plant Arch 16(1):226–228

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Magar VG, Magar PG, Bankar PB, Haldavnekar PC (2016) Evaluation of F4 progenies of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) for yield and yield attributes under Konkan agroclimatic conditions. Int J Trop Agric 34(1):199–205

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagappan N, Vethamoni I (2016) Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of green fruited brinjal genotypes for resistance to shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes Orbonalis Guenee). Electron J Plant Breed 7(2):325–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nirmala N, Praneetha S, Manivannan N (2013) Per se performance of cluster bearing, glossy purple brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) hybrids for economic traits. Electron J Plant Breed 4(2):1188–1192

    Google Scholar 

  • Nolla JAB (1932) Inheritance of color in the eggplant (Solanum melongena L). Jour Dep Agr Puerto Rico 16:19–30

    Google Scholar 

  • Nyadanu D, Aboagye LM, Akromah R, Osei MK, Dordoe MB (2014) Agromorphological characterisation of gboma eggplant, an indigenous fruit and leafy vegetable in Ghana. Afr Crop Sci J 22(4):281–289

    Google Scholar 

  • Onyia VN, Chukwudi UP, Ezea AC, Atugwu AI, Ene CO (2020) Correlation and path coefficient analyses of yield and yield components of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in a coarse-textured Ultisol. Inform Process Agric 7(1):173–181

    Google Scholar 

  • Portis E, Barchi L, Toppino L, Lanteri S, Acciarri N, Felicioni N, Fusari F, Barbierato V, Cericola F, Valè G, Rotino GL (2014) QTL mapping in eggplant reveals clusters of yield-related loci and orthology with the tomato genome. PLoS One 9(2):e89499

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Pujer P, Jagadeesha RC, Cholin S (2017) Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield, yield related components of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes. Int J Pure Appl Biosci 5(5):872–878

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reshmika PK, Gasti VD, Evoor S, Jayappa J, Mulge R, Basavaraj LB (2016) Evaluation of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes for yield and quality characters. Environ Ecol 34(2):531–535

    Google Scholar 

  • Ro N, Haile M, Kim B, Cho GT, Lee J, Lee YJ, Hyun DY (2022) Genome-wide association study for agro-morphological traits in eggplant core collection. Plants 11(19):2627

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Saleh MM, Muhra O, Suliman ZA (2019) Selection criteria for yield in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Hortic Biotechnol Res 23:5

    Google Scholar 

  • Sulaiman NNM, Rafii MY, Duangjit J, Ramlee SI, Phumichai C, Oladosu Y, Datta DR, Musa I (2020) Genetic variability of eggplant germplasm evaluated under open field and glasshouse cropping conditions. Agronomy 10(3):436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sunseri F, Polignano GB, Alba V, Lotti C, Bisignano V, Mennella G, Alessandro D, Bacchi M, Riccardi P, Fiore MC, Ricciardi L (2010) Genetic diversity and characterisation of African eggplant germplasm collection. Afr J Plant Sci 4(7):231–241

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Syed S, Reddy RVSK, Begum H, Reddy TM (2018) Performance of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes for yield and quality traits under Southern zone of Andhra Pradesh. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 7:4977–4985

    Google Scholar 

  • Tatebe T (1939) On inheritance of color in Solanum melongena Linn. Jpn J Genet 155:261–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tigchelaar EC, Janick J, Erickson H (1968) The genetics of anthocyanin coloration in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Genetics 60(3):475

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Uddin MS, Billah M, Afroz R, Rahman S, Jahan N, Hossain MG, Hossain A (2021) Evaluation of 130 eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes for future breeding program based on qualitative and quantitative traits, and various genetic parameters. Horticulturae 7(10):376

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Authors are highly thankful to CSK HPKV, Palampur for providing the infrastructure and support required for making data available.


This work did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



VK Planning and monitoring experiments. SS: Conduct of experiments, recording data, analyzed, interpreted the data and preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Shweta Sharma or Viveka Katoch.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sharma, S., Katoch, V. Performance, genetic diversity and inheritance of fruit colour and shape in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Genet Resour Crop Evol 71, 2135–2147 (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: