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First DNA barcode efficiency assessment for an important ingredient in the Amazonian ayahuasca tea: mariri/jagube, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae)

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Abstract

Mariri or jagube (Banisteriopsis C. B. Rob.) is a vine of the Malpighiaceae family and is naturally found in the Brazilian Amazon. It is also an important ingredient of ayahuasca tea, which is used by some traditional, indigenous people and religious groups of Amazonian origin. Via DNA barcodes, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of six markers to access genetic diversity and use them in the identification of either ethnovarieties or species of Banisteriopsis used in the preparation of “ayahuasca” in the Amazon. The efficiency of three plastid genes (matK/trnK, ndhF, and rcbL) and three nuclear markers (MP3 and yage5 isolated in the present study and ITS—Internal Transcribed Spacer) were tested. For these six markers, a total of 4792 base pairs were sequenced. The plastid markers revealed that all the samples analyzed belong to the genus Banisteriopsis; however, they presented the lowest indices of genetic diversity and were not efficient for use in the identification of ethnovarieties. Nuclear DNA markers showed the highest levels of genetic diversity. The ITS showed the highest values of genetic distances between the identified lineages. This study demonstrates that the use of ITS for DNA barcoding was more efficient since the identified lineages showed correspondence with the ethnovarieties of Banisteriopsis spp. used in the preparation of ayahuasca. As such, we encourage new integrative studies like this one, which combines modern approaches and traditional knowledge, to contribute to the maintenance of traditional knowledge as well as the conservation of species.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the brothers and sisters of CEBUDV who contributed to the collection the samples of mariri. We would also like to thank also the Programa de Pós Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva (PPG-GCBEv/INPA) and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) for the institutional support; and Laboratório Temático de Biologia Molecular (LTBM/INPA) for the use of their infrastructure where this study was developed. This work forms a portion of T.Z.L.’s M.Sc dissertation at the PPG-GCBEv/INPA. This work is dedicated in memory of Mestre Angílio de Jesus. Dedicated in memory Mestre José Gabriel da Costa the founder of CEBUDV.

Funding

We thank the Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal (CEBUDV) for the partial funding of the project “Molecular identification and estimation of the genetic variability of Banisteriopsis caapi (mariri), based on chloroplast and nuclear genes” (2017–2019) about the coordination of A.S.C.M. The Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the scholarship granted for T.Z.L. and A.S.C.M. during the study. This study was also financed in part by CAPES (finance Code 001) and Governo do Estado do Amazonas, Secretaria de Estado de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (SEDECTI), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM) POSGRAD and PAPAC 2019 financial support.

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Contributions

ASCM Idealized and conceptualized this study. ASCM and TZL collected the needed samples. TZL Generated the data. ASCM and TZL Processed the statistical analyzes and phylogenetic. ASCM and TZL Prepared the figures. TZL and ASCM wrote the first draft of the manuscript. ASCM and TZL Wrote the manuscript final. JSB Supervised and oriented the execution of that study. All authors reviewed and approved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Antonio Saulo Cunha-Machado.

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Luz, T.Z., Cunha-Machado, A.S. & da Silva Batista, J. First DNA barcode efficiency assessment for an important ingredient in the Amazonian ayahuasca tea: mariri/jagube, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae). Genet Resour Crop Evol 70, 1605–1616 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-022-01522-3

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