A note on distribution and potential of Japanese wild adzuki bean [Vigna angularis var. nipponensis (Ohwi) Ohwi and H. Ohashi] in India


The present paper deals with the report on the potential of Vigna angularis var. nipponensis (Ohwi) Ohwi and H. Ohashi assembled from Northeastern hill region (NEH) of India. The total of four exploration missions were conducted in remote and highaltitude areas of Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram during 2011, 2016, 2017 and 2019 to confirm the occurrence, localities of new distribution and genetic resource study. Preliminary studies on seed germination and morpho-nutritional evaluation of seed of both cultivated and wild forms were also conducted. Conserving precious germplasm of this less represented wild relative of adzuki bean {Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi} assumes great significance for its use in breeding and improvement of Vigna crop group.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Apak R, Güçlü K, Özyürek M, Karademir SE (2004) Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC Method. J Agric Food Chem 52(26):7970–7981

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bisht IS, Bhat KV, Lakhanpaul S, Latha M, Jayan PK, Biswas BK (2005) Diversity and genetic resources of wild Vigna species in India. Genet Res Crop Evol 52:53–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Castañeda-Álvarez NP, Khoury CK, Achicanoy HA, Bernau V, Dempewolf H, Eastwood RJ, Guarino L, Harker RH, Jarvis A, Maxted N, Müller JV, Ramirez-Villegas J, Sosa CC, Struik PC, Vincent H, Toll J (2016) Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives. Nat Plants 2:16022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. de Wet JMJ, Harlan JR (1975) Weeds and domesticates: evolution in the manmade habitat. Econ Bot 29:99–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Geneve RL, Baskin CC, Baskin JM, Jayasuriya KM, Gama- Arachchige NS (2018) Functional morpho-anatomy of water-gap complexes in physically dormant seed. Seed Sci Res 28(3):186–191

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gohara AK, de Souza AHP, Gomes STM, de Souza NE, Visentainer JV, Matsushita M (2016) Nutritional and bioactive compounds of adzuki beans cultivars using chemometric approach. Ciência Agrotecnol 40(1):104–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Gore PG, Tripathi K, Pratap A, Bhat KV, Umdale SD, Gupta V, Pandey A (2019) Delineating taxonomic identity of two closely related Vigna species of section Aconitifoliae: V. trilobata (L.) Verdc. and V. stipulacea (Lam.) Kuntz in India. Genet Res Crop Evol 66(5):1155–1165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hanelt P, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (ed) (2000) Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi. In: Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, vol 2, pp 753–754. Springer, Heidelberg

  9. Hedge JE, Hofreiter BT (1962) In: Carbohydrate chemistry 17 (eds Whistler, RL and Be Miller, JN) Academic Press New York

  10. International Seed Testing Association (2015) International rules for seed testing. Basserdorf, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kaga A, Isemura T, Tomooka N, Vaughan DA (2008) The genetics of domestication of the azuki bean (Vigna angularis). Genetics 178(2):1013–1036

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Maréchal R, Mascherpa JM, Stainier F (1978) Etude taxonomique d’un groupe complexe des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papiloonaceae) sur la base de dunnees morphologiqu es et pulliniques, traitees pas l’analye informatique. Boissiera 28: 1–273. In: Singh SR, Rachie KO (eds) Cowpea research, production and utilization. Nigeria. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, pp 25–62

    Google Scholar 

  13. Maxted N, Amri A, Castaneda-Alvarez NP, Dias S, Dullo ME, Fielder H, Ford-Lloyd BV, Iriondo JM, Magos Brehm J, Nilsen LB, Thormann I, Vincent H, Kell SP (2016) Joining up the dots: systematic perspective of crop wild relatives conservation and use. In: Maxted N, Dulloo ME, Ford-Lloyd BV (eds) Enhancing crop genepool use: capturing wild relative and landrace diversity for crop improvement. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 87–124

    Google Scholar 

  14. NBPGR (2017) Annual report of the ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources 2016–17. NBPGR, New Delhi, India, p 23

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ohwi J (1953) Flora of Japan. Shibundo, Tokyo

    Google Scholar 

  16. Pradheep K, Harish GD, Rathi RS, John JK, Sultan SM, Naveen K, Jaisankar I, Pandey A, Ahlawat SP, Gupta R (2019) New plant distribution records to Indian states and addition to the flora of Myanmar. J Threat Taxa 11(6):13795–13804

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Singh N, Gore PG, Arvind J (2020) Breaking seed coat impermeability to aid conservation and utilization of wild Vigna species. Genet Resour Crop Evol 67:523–529

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Method Enzymol 299:152–178

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Siriwardhane D, Egawa Y, Tomooka N (1991) Cross-compatibility of cultivated adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and rice bean (V. umbellata) with their wild relatives. Plant Breeding 107:320–325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Tateishi Y (1984) Contributions to the Genus Vigna (Leguminosae) in Taiwan I. Sci Rep Tohoku Univ 4th ser. (Biology) 38:335–350

  21. Tateishi Y, Ohashi H (1990) Systematics of the azuki bean group in the genus Vigna. In: Fujii K et al (eds) Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. Kluwer Publ, Netherlands, pp 189–199

    Google Scholar 

  22. Tomooka N, Vaughan DA, Moss H, Maxted N (2002) The Asian Vigna: genus Vigna Subgenus Ceratotropis genetic resources. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands

    Book  Google Scholar 

  23. Wang YR, Hanson J, Mariam YW (2007) Effect of sulphuric acid pretreatment on breaking hard seed dormancy in diverse accessions of five wild Vigna species. Seed Sci Technol 35:550–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wang YR, He XQ, Hanson J, Mariam YW (2011) Breaking hard seed dormancy in diverse accessions of five wild Vigna species by hot water and mechanical scarification. Seed Sci Technol 39:12–20

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Yadav SR, Aitwade MM, Shrikant S, Bhat KV, Latha M, John JK, Malik SK, Umdale S, Rao SR (2014) Genus Vigna Savi in India-an illustrated guide for species identification. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi; Shivaji University, Kolhapur and North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 64p

    Google Scholar 

  26. Yamaguchi H (1989) Weed azuki bean, an overlooked representative. Bull Univ Pref Ser B 41:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  27. Yamaguchi H (1992) Wild and weedy azuki beans in Japan. Econ Bot 46(4):384–394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Yoon SM, Lee J, Kim CY, Baek HJ (2007) Genetic relationships among cultivated and wild Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi et Ohashi and relatives from Korea based on AFLP markers. Genet Res Crop Evol 54:875–883

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Zong XX, Kaga A, Tomooka N, Wang XW, Han OK, Vaughan DA (2003) The genetic diversity of the Vigna angularis complex in Asia. Genome 46:647–658

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, for support and encouragement in undertaking this work.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to K. C. Bhatt.

Ethics declarations

Ethical statement

The manuscript was not submitted anywhere else, and results were presented without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. Research does not pose any threat to public health or national security.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in the study undertaken.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bhatt, K.C., Malav, P.K., Gore, P.G. et al. A note on distribution and potential of Japanese wild adzuki bean [Vigna angularis var. nipponensis (Ohwi) Ohwi and H. Ohashi] in India. Genet Resour Crop Evol 68, 2157–2166 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01130-7

Download citation


  • Conservation
  • Crop wild relatives
  • New distribution record
  • North-eastern hill region
  • Occurrence
  • Vigna angularis var. nipponensis