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Analysis of wild Taraxacum bicorne Dahlst. (Compositae–Crepidinae) as a potential alternative natural rubber crop

Abstract

Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin, a dandelion from the steppes of south-eastern Kazakhstan, has been known for long time as potential rubber producer, as a temperate region alternative to the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.. In this work, we evaluate Taraxacum bicorne Dahlst. (wild populations), a closely related congener of T. koksaghyz. The taxonomy of T. bicorne is reviewed, population genetic characteristics are analysed by Simple Sequence Repeat markers, and rubber biosynthesis genes are identified by Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR. Rubber content of T. bicorne plants collected in wild is measured using a modified extraction method to minimize amount of material. Taraxacum bicorne is shown to be an outcrossing sexual diploid. Its rubber content is about half of that of T. koksaghyz (~ 3.2% vs. ~ 7.2% of root dry weight), but T. bicorne could be used as a potential rubber source or as a source of germplasm for production of hybrids to improve rubber yield in various environments, because T. bicorne has considerable genetic variation, wider geographical range than T. koksaghyz and grows in different environments.

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Modified from Kirschner et al. (2017) where also lists of samples are given

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by a long-term research & development project, no. RVO 67985939 and the funding was also provided by the Czech Science Foundation (grant no. GA13-13368S) and the EU Framework Programme 7 (grant DRIVE4EU, no. 613697). We are grateful to our great technician Kateřina Moravcová, curators of all visited herbariums and all people helping us when forking in the field.

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Appendix: Selected specimens studied

Appendix: Selected specimens studied

Kazakhstan: Yuzhnyy Kazakhstan, Chu District, Chu River valley, Kush-tyube, 28 May 1926, V. Drobov & P. Gololitskiy 226 (TASH, no. det. 15772). Syr-Darya Region, Aulizatinskiy Uyezd., left bank of Chu River, between villages of Gulyaevka and Alekseevka, 3 May 1916, M. Sovetkina 456 (TASH, no. det. 15775). Syr-Darya Region, Chu River left bank, 4.2 km SW of Alekseevka, 4 May 1916, M. Sovetkina & S. Chausova 481 (TASH!). — Syr-Darya Region, Aulizatinskiy District, Alekseevka, 4 May 1916, M. Sovetkina 526 (LE, no. det. 20490). — Syr-Darya Region, Aulizatinskiy District, Talas, sands of Karagundy basin, 28 May 1916, M. Sovetkina (AA, no. det. 20097). — Syr-Darya Region, Aulizatinskiy District, Talas, sands of Karagundy basin, 28 May 1916, M. Sovetkina 607 (TASH, no. det. 15774). — Chu District, Chu R. valley, Kum-tyube, 28 May 1926, V. Drobov & P. Gomolickiy (LE, no. det. 20487). — Chu R. district, Talasa R. valley, Kara-bakyr, 19 May 1926, V. Drobov & P. Gomolickiy (LE, no. det. 20486). — Turgai Region, Irgiz District, B. Barsuki, W margin of sands of Chin’-Davlip, 25 May 1914, N. Dessiatoff 715 (LE, no. det. 20484). — E shore of Biylikul’ (Dzhambul Region), 22 May 1963, V. Goloskokov (AA!). — Syr-Darya Region, Perovskiy District, 26 May 1910, O. Knorring & Z. Minkwitz (LE, no. det. 20488).

Kyrgyzstan: [Bishkek district] right bank of Kochkur River, upper Chu River, Bektenov winter camp, 1 Jun 1915, M. Sovetkina 607 (S, no. det. 18356). — Kaschkara [Kochkor River], Kyrgyz Alatau [Alpes Alexandri], 5 Jun 1896, V. F. Brotherus 103 (LE, no. det. 8053). — [Bishkek Region] W shore of Lake Issyk-kul’, ca. 2 km of Rybach’e, 29 May 1915, M. Sovetkina 535 (LE, no. det. 20496).

Uzbekistan: Margelan [Margilon], Karl Marx Street, 19 Apr 1959, Kovalevskaya 90 (TASH, no. det. 15781). — Yad’yavanskiy r-n [district], kolkhoz Stalinabad, 19 May 1957, U. Saidaliev (TASH, no. det. 15780). — Amu-Dar’ya (Urgen’ — Chardzhuy), Dzhagiribentskiy Tugay, 25–26 Mar 1913, M. Popov 602 (TASH, no. det. 15779). — Samarkand — Bukhara, km 122, 24 Apr 1957, Vvedenskiy & Kovalevskaya 159 (TASH, no. det. 15778). — Middle Zeravshan, Khatyrchinskiy District, 5 May 1928, S. Lepeshkin (TASH, no. det. 15773). — Andizhan Region, Nazar-Makhram, road from Shary-Yulduz kolkhoz to Sharykhan, along the bank of Fergana channel, 23 Apr 1959, Kovalevskaya 190 (TASH, no. det. 15767). — Kokand — Buvaydy road, settlement Palakhan, 18 Apr 1959, Kovalevskaya 60 (TASH, no. det. 15765). — Kokand, old town, 18 Apr 1959, Kovalevskaya 52 (TASH, no. det. 15766). — Bukhara Region, valley of Zarovshan River, in the vicinity of Kermine [Karmana], 12 May 1956, V. Sedov 786 (TASH, no. det. 15762). — Kara-Kalpakiya, Kegeili, 16 May 1967, [collector illegible] (TASH, no. det. 15763). — Golodnaya step’ [Steppe of Starving, Mirzachol], along the road to Krasnoarmeisk, 11 Jun 1957, Mel’nikova & Ergashev 68 (TASH, no. det. 15761). — Termez, 15 Apr 1958, Vvedenskiy et al. 219 (TASH, no. det. 15759). — Uzbekistan: prope opp. Urgenč, Čalyš., 22 Apr 1979, E. Hadač & H. Rambousková (PRC, no. det. 26804). — Zeravshan Expedition, Bukhara Region, Kermishskiy raion [district], Kemish, 14 May 1956, V. Sedov (TASH, no. det. 15950). — Katta-Kurgan Reservoir, 21 Apr 1957, Vvedenskiy & Kovalevskaya 115 (TASH, no. det. 15758).—Kosh-Tagirman, near the road from Denau to Shurchi, along Surkhan R., 20 Apr 1958, Vvedenskiy et al. 303 (TASH, no. det. 15760). — Saryoshei [Sariosiyo] to Uzunom [Uzun] road, 18 Apr 1958, Vvedenskiy et al. 288 (TASH, no. det. 15757). — Tashkent highway, km 9 along the road, 15 Apr 1958, Vvedenskiy et al. 220 (TASH, no. det. 15755, 15756). — Plants of Kashka-Darya Region of UzSSR, district of Bek-budi, Dzhuta-bazar, a road to Bek-budi, 1 Jun 1927, M. Kultiasov & A. Granitov 188 (TASH, no. det. 15753). — Between Dusar-Kurgan and Surkhan, 16 Apr 1958, Vvedenskiy et al. 236 (TASH, no. det. 15754). — Plants of Bukhara, sands of Sundukli (right bank of Amu-Darya), Assiya, right bank of Taikyr R., 5 Mar 1911, A. K. Golbek 26 (LE, no. det. 20493). — Delta of Amu-Darya, bank of Ak-Darya below Dzhalsan, 17 Aug 1928, N. I. Kuznetsov 858 (LE, no. det. 20495). — Syr-Darya Region, Chimkent District, Sary-kamysh, near Lake Tugul’ (bank of Syr-Darya), 7 Jun 1908, Z. Minkwitz 616 (LE, no. det. 20494). — Desertum Aralense, regio fluv. Ssyr-darja, in humidis pr. Var-kaga, Aug 1856, E. Borsczow 660 (LE, no. det. 20489).

Turkmenistan: Herb. Horti botanici Turcomanici, near Charshanga, 193(?), Anonymus 1689 (LE, no. det. 20491).

Tajikistan: Leninabad [Khujand, Khudzhand], botanical garden, 16 Apr 1959, Kovalevskaya 33 (TASH, no. det. 15768).

China: prov. Kansu, ca 3 km ad septentr. vers. a Camp LXV, 9 Jun 1930, B. Bohlin, Exped. S. Hedin (S, no. det. 23060). — Kansu, in montibus Richthofen (Nan-Shan) [Qilian Mountains], Tung Wei Ch’ü kou, 17 Jun 1931, B. Bohlin, Exped. S. Hedin 2134 (S, no. det. 23057, 23061). — [Xinjiang] Turkestania sinensis, in deserto Taklamakan, Domoku, ad fossam, 1500 m, ‘Kök kuk’, 28 Apr 1933, N. Ambolt, Exped. S. Hedin 6030 (S, no. det. 23059). — [Xinjiang] Turkestania sinensis, Jarkend, in agro, 1300 m s.m., 13 May 1930, C. Persson 170 (S, no. det. 9252). — [Xinjiang] Pamir: distr. Kashgar, in oppido., 12 May 1935, C. Persson 629a (S, no. det. 9255). — [Xinjiang] Turkestania sinensis, Kashgar, 12 May 1935, C. Persson no. 629a, cult. in Lund, no. 231, leg. G. Haglund 12 Jun 1937 (S, no. det. 9253). — [Xinjiang, Kumul] Hami, 28 May 1877, G. N. Potanin s.n. (S, no. det. 9254). — [Ningxia] Mongolia, Gobi, inter Sha-hu [Shahu Lake] et Fui-ting, 5 Jun 1886, G. N. Potanin (LE!). — Mongolia austral.: prov. Ming-hsia, ca. 8 li ad orient. versus a Camp. LIX, in prato humido., 25 May 1930, B. Bohlin 1865 (S, no. det. 9251). — Qinghai, Golmud, 2740 m, 14 Jun 1955, S.-Y. Li, C.-J. Wang & D.-L. Huang [Qaidam Basin Expedition] 40 (PE 318457, no. det. 24838).

Mongolia: Bajanchongor-Aimak, Oase Echin-gol, Rand der Solontschakwiese., 14 Jun 1962, C. Davažamc & P. Hanelt 1022 (PE, no. det. 24836, GAT, no. det. 26468).

Pakistan: Quetta, Pishin Forest, 7 May 1965, S.M.A. Kazmi 1442 (RAW, no. det. 33765).

Afghanistan: prov. Kabul, Paghman, 7 May1964, Neubauer 4708 (M, no. det. 33766). — Kandahar, Pirzada, 900 m s.m., 25 Feb 1949, M. Köie 3439 (C, no. det. 31007, cf.).

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Zeisek, V., Kirschner, J., van Dijk, P.J. et al. Analysis of wild Taraxacum bicorne Dahlst. (Compositae–Crepidinae) as a potential alternative natural rubber crop. Genet Resour Crop Evol 66, 1341–1361 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-019-00788-4

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Keywords

  • Natural rubber
  • Population genetics
  • Rubber content
  • Rubber extraction
  • Taraxacum
  • Taxonomy