Potential for domestication of Borassus aethiopum Mart., a wild multipurpose palm species in Sub-Saharan Africa

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Abstract

Borassus aethiopum Mart. is a multipurpose palm native to mainland Africa. Fruits and hypocotyls are the most exploited parts which collection/harvest threats the species. As a pre-requisite for its domestication, this study assessed the (1) environmental-induced diversity in morphological traits of fruits and (2) differences in growth and weight of hypocotyls from one-seeded, two-seeded, and three-seeded fruits from three provenances in the three climatic regions of Benin. 5400 fruits collected from 180 trees in six populations were measured for fruits and tree morphological traits. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used for the experimentation in each region. Variation in fruit morphological traits was not influenced by climatic regions. The greatest variation (65–94%) in fruit morphological traits was located at tree level, highlighting that selection of many fruits and individual trees within a few populations would capture large variation of fruit traits. Tree diameter at breast height (18.5–52 cm), total (6.4–19.6 m) and bole (4.8–17.6 m) height, and fruit length (7.00–20.50 cm), dry weight (98–2552 g), shape index (0.59–2.80), and number of seed (1–3) were the most discriminative traits of studied populations. Clustering of the trees resulted into five morphotypes based on discriminating traits. Morphotypes 1 and 2 showed high performances for fruits and seeds production. These morphotypes are good candidates for selection and breeding programs. Irrespective of the provenances, best performances of hypocotyls were observed in the humid region. This study provides important baseline information for the domestication of B. aethiopum.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Abasse T, Weber JC, Katkore B, Boureima M, Larwanou M, Kalinganire A (2011) Morphological variation in Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and seeds within and among parkland agroforests in eastern Niger. Agrofor Syst 81:57–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adepoju AA, Salau AS (2007) Economic valuation of non-timber forest products (NTFPs)

  3. Adomou A, Agbani O, Sinsin B (2011) Plantes. Plants. In: Protection de la nature en Afrique de l’Ouest: Une liste rouge pour le Bénin Nature Conservation in West Africa: red List for Benin. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, p 365

  4. Akoègninou A, Van der Burg W, Van der Maesen L (2006) Flore analytique du Bénin, vol 6. Backhuys Publishers, Kerkwerve

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ali A, Alhadji D, Tchiegang C, Saiuml C (2010) Physico-chemical properties of palmyra palm (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) fruits from Northern Cameroon African. J Food Sci 4:115–119

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Amusa T (2011) Effects of three pre-treatment techniques on dormancy and germination of seeds of Afzelia africana (Sm. Ex pers). J Hortic For 3:96–103

    Google Scholar 

  7. Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï RL, Chadare FJ, Thomson L, Kyndt T, Sinsin B, van Damme P (2008a) Folk classification, perception, and preferences of baobab Products in West Africa: consequences for species conservation and improvement. Econ Bot 61:74–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Assogbadjo AE, Kyndt T, Chadare FJ, Sinsin B, Gheysen G, Eyog-Matig O, Van Damme P (2008b) Genetic fingerprinting using AFLP cannot distinguish traditionally classified baobab morphotypes. Agrofor Syst 75:157–165. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-008-9157-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï R, Edon S, Kyndt T, Sinsin B (2011) Natural variation in fruit characteristics, seed germination and seedling growth of Adansonia digitata L. in Benin. New For 41:113–125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Assogbadjo AE, Idohou R, Chadare FJ, Salako VK, Djagoun CAMS, Akouèhou G, Mbairamadji J (2017) Diversity and prioritization of non timber forest products for economic valuation in Benin (West Africa). Afr J Rural Dev 2:105–115

    Google Scholar 

  11. Barot S, Gignoux J, Vuattoux R, Legendre S (2000) Demography of a savanna palm tree in Ivory Coast (Lamto): population persistence and Iife-history. J Trop Ecol 16:637–655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4; 2014 (preprint available)

  13. Bayton RP (2007) A revision of Borassus L. (Arecaceae). Kew Bull 62:561–585

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brink AB, Eva HD (2009) Monitoring 25 years of land cover change dynamics in Africa: a sample based remote sensing approach. Appl Geogr 29:501–512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Castellanos MC, Medrano M, Herrera CM (2008) Subindividual variation and genetic versus environmental effects on seed traits in a European Aquilegia. Botany 86:1125–1132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Duveiller G, Defourny P, Desclée B, Mayaux P (2008) Deforestation in Central Africa: estimates at regional, national and landscape levels by advanced processing of systematically-distributed Landsat extracts. Remote Sens Environ 112:1969–1981

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Fandohan B, Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï R, Sinsin B (2010) Variation in seed morphometric traits, germination and early seedling growth performances of Tamarindus indica L. Int J Biol Chem Sci 4:4

    Google Scholar 

  18. Frankham R, Ballou J, Briscoe D (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics. University Press Cambridge, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  19. Friendly M, Fox J (2016) Candisc: visualizing generalized canonical discriminant and canonical correlation analysis, R package version 0.7–2 edn

  20. Gaiero P, Mazzella C, Agostini G, Bertolazzi S, Rossato M (2011) Genetic diversity among endangered Uruguayan populations of Butia Becc. species based on ISSR. Plant Syst Evol 292:105–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gbesso F, Akouehou G, Tente B, Akoegninou A (2013) Aspects technico-économiques de la transformation de Borassus aethiopum Mart. (arecaceae) au Centre-Bénin. Afr Sci Revue Int Sci Technol 9:159–173

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gnanglè P, Glèlè Kakaï R, Assogbadjo AE, Vodounon S, Yabi JA, Sokpon N (2011) Tendances climatiques passées, modélisation, perceptions et adaptations locales au Bénin. Climatologie 8:27–40

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gnanglè PC, Egah J, Baco MN, Gbemavo CDSJ, Kakaï Glèlè R, Sokpon N (2012) Perceptions locales du changement climatique et mesures d’adaptation dans la gestion des parcs à karité au Nord-Bénin. Int J Biol Chem Sci 6:136–149

    Google Scholar 

  24. Gruca M, Yu W, Amoateng P, Nielsen MA, Poulsen TB, Balslev H (2015) Ethnomedicinal survey and in vitro anti-plasmodial activity of the palm Borassus aethiopum Mart. J Ethnopharmacol 175:356–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004) Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends Ecol Evol 19:470–474

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hamasha HR, Hensen I (2009) Seed germination of four Jordanian Stipa spp: differences in temperature regimes and seed provenances. Plant Species Biol 24:127–132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R (2001) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals). Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  28. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants, vol 892. Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hothorn T, Bretz F, Westfall P, Heiberger R, Schuetzenmeister A (2015) Multcomp: simultaneous inference in general parametric models. R package version 1.3. 1. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/multcomp/index.html

  30. Houndonougbo JS, Salako VK, Idohou R, Azihou FA, Assogbadjo AE, Kakaï RG (2017) Perceptions locales des interactions entre les éléphants et le palmier Borassus aethiopum Mart (Arecaceae) dans le parc national de la Pendjari au Bénin. Bois For Trop 331:33–43

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hounkpèvi A, Azihou AF, Kouassi ÉK, Porembski S, Kakaï RG (2016) Climate-induced morphological variation of black plum (Vitex doniana Sw.) in Benin. West Afr Genet Resour Crop Evolut 63:1073–1084

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ijato JY (2010) Studies on sprouting, germination and seedlings of Borassus Aethiopum, a Nigerian palm stem. Cell 1:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jahnke HE, Jahnke HE (1982) Livestock production systems and livestock developement in tropical Africa. Kieler Wissenschaftsverlag Vauk, Kiel

    Google Scholar 

  34. Jatau DF (2008) Profitability assessment of Borassus aethiopum (Mart) marketing in Adamawa State Nigeria. J Agric Social Sci 4:159–164

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kaimowitz D (2006) Critical issues for small-scale commercial forestry. In: Copy of NTFP SMFE proceedings on small and medium enterprise development and challenges in globalising market. Forest SME Conference CAITIE

  36. Kuznetsova A, Brockhoff P, Christensen R (2014) lmerTest: tests in linear mixed effects models, 2.0–20 edn.

  37. Leakey R, Pate K, Lombard C (2005) Domestication potential of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp caffra) in South Africa and Namibia: 2. Phenotypic variation in nut and kernel traits. Agrofor Syst 64:37–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Moupela C, Vermeulen C, Daïnou K, Doucet J-L (2011) Le noisetier d’Afrique (Coula edulis Baill.). Un produit forestier non ligneux méconnu/African walnut (Coula edulis Baill.). An unknown non-timber forest product. Biotechnol Agron Soc Environ 15:485

    Google Scholar 

  39. Mwase WF, Bjornstad A, Ntupanyama YM, Kwapata MB, Bokosi JM (2006) Phenotypic variation in fruit, seed and seedling traits of nine Uapaca kirkiana provenances found in Malawi: scientific paper. South Afr For J 2006:15–21

    Google Scholar 

  40. N’Danikou S, Achigan-Dako E, Tchokponhoué D, Komlan FA, Vodouhe R, Ahanchédé A (2015) Improving seedling production for Vitex doniana. Seed Sci Technol 43:10–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Neuenschwander P, Sinsin B, Goergen G (2011) Protection de la nature en Afrique de l’Ouest: Une Liste Rouge pour le Bénin. Nature conservation in West Africa: red list for Benin. Int Inst Trop Agric, Ibadan

    Google Scholar 

  42. Ouattara DN, Ekpe P, Bakayoko A, Stauffer FW (2015) Ethnobotany and conservation of palms from Ghana. Palms 59:85–103

    Google Scholar 

  43. Padonou E, Kassa B, Assogbadjo A, Fandohan B, Chakeredza S, Glèlè Kakaï R, Sinsin B (2014) Natural variation in fruit characteristics and seed germination of Jatropha curcas in Benin West Africa. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 89:69–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Parry ML (2007) Climate change 2007-impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: working group II contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC, vol 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  45. Paul T (1995) The palm of Africa. Trendrine Press, Cornwall

    Google Scholar 

  46. Pinheiro JC, Bates DM (2000) Mixed-effects models in S and S-plus. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  47. Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, Team RC (2016) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models, 3.1–125 edn

  48. R Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  49. Roach DA, Wulff RD (1987) Maternal effects in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 18:209–235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Salako VK, Assogbadjo AE, Adomou AC, Agbangla C, Glèlè Kakaï RL (2015) Latitudinal distribution, co-occurring tree species and structural diversity of the threatened palm Borassus aethiopum (Arecaceae) in Benin West Africa. Plant Ecol Evol 148:335–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Salako VK, Azihou AF, Assogbadjo AE, Houéhanou TD, Kassa BD, Glèlè Kakaï RL (2016) Elephant-induced damage drives spatial isolation of the dioecious palm Borassus aethiopum Mart. (Arecaceae) in the Pendjari National Park Benin. Afr J Ecol 54:9–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Salako KV, Moreira F, Gbedomon RC, Tovissodé F, Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï RL (2018) Traditional knowledge and cultural importance of Borassus aethiopum Mart. in Benin: interacting effects of socio-demographic attributes and multi-scale abundance. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14:36

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. Salvi J, Katewa SS (2014) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of palm heart of Phoenix sylvestris (Roxb). Int Food Res J 21:2141–2144

    Google Scholar 

  54. Sambou B, Lawesson JE, Barfod AS (1992) Borassus aethiopum, a threatened multiple purpose palm in Senegal. Principes 36:148–155

    Google Scholar 

  55. Sanon M, Sacande M (2007) Borassus aethiopum Mart. Forest & Landscape 120

  56. SAS Institute (2011) The SAS system for Windows, 9.2nd edn. SAS Institute, Cary

    Google Scholar 

  57. Schumann K, Wittig R, Thiombiano A, Becker U, Hahn K (2010) Impact of land-use type and bark-and leaf-harvesting on population structure and fruit production of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) in a semi-arid savanna West Africa. For Ecol Manag 260:2035–2044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Singer JD, Willett JB (2003) Applied longitudinal data analysis: modeling change and event occurrence. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  59. Tchacondo T et al (2012) Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing. Pharm Res 4:92

    Google Scholar 

  60. Thomas R, Vaughan I, Lello J (2013) Data analysis with R statistical software. a guidebook for scientists, 1st edn. Eco Explore, Caerphilly

    Google Scholar 

  61. van Mölken T, Jorritsma-Wienk LD, van Hoek PHW, de Kroon H (2005) Only seed size matters for germination in different populations of the dimorphic Tragopogon pratensis subsp pratensis (Asteraceae). Am J Bot 92:432–437

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Wray N, Visscher P (2008) Estimating trait heritability. Nat Educ 1:29

    Google Scholar 

  63. Zuur A, Ieno E, Walker N, Saveliev A, Smith G (2009) Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with with R. Gail M, Krickeberg K, Samet JM, Tsiatis A, Wong W, editors. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the International Foundation for Science (IFS), Stockholm, Sweden individual research grants (Salako K.V: N° D/5448-1, Kégbé A.G.F.M.B: N° C/6062-1). We also acknowledge additional support from the scientific council of the University of Abomey-Calavi through the project “WILD-PALM of Benin” and the AGNES Junior research Grant to S.K.V.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. K. Salako.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Data availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the authors upon request.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salako, V.K., Kégbé, A.M., Chadaré, F.J. et al. Potential for domestication of Borassus aethiopum Mart., a wild multipurpose palm species in Sub-Saharan Africa. Genet Resour Crop Evol 66, 1129–1144 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-019-00777-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Domestication
  • Morphological traits
  • Provenance
  • Hypocotyl
  • Climatic regions
  • Benin