Agromorphological diversity of local Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) collected in Benin

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Abstract

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is a neglected and less exploited species in Benin. However, the rational use of the different landraces available involves an appropriate knowledge of their characteristics. This study examined the characteristics of 52 local landraces of Bambara groundnut traditionally cultivated in Benin based on 12 qualitative and 11 quantitative variables, in order to expose those of good qualities. After a classification based on the morphological variables of the seeds, the experimental field was installed in a completely randomized device of blocks repeated three times. The collected data was analyzed with Statistica 7.1 and NTSYS PC 2.2. softwares using qualitative characteristics (Growth’s type, Stem’s hairiness, Flower’s colour, Leave’s shape etc.). As result, the number of morphotypes increased from 18 (out of classification) to 47. Therefore, it appears that the Benin collection of Bambara groundnut is broad in morphological variability. The analysis of the principal component of the quantitative variables revealed three specific classes within the collection. The most efficient variety which belonged to the second class, had a high field yield per hectare (> 1 t/ha). The Souhouloumankpa variety yielded the earliest (103 days after sowing) in addition to the high field yield. The study also showed a positive relationship between 100 seed’s weight, their length, the number of seeds per plant and the seed’s field yield in kg/ha. For a sustainable preservation and an improvement of the available resources, a molecular characterization of the Bambara groundnut landraces in Benin Republic needs to be done.

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Acknowledgements

This research was sponsored by the International Foundation for Science (IFS) through the project, “Morphological characterization and agronomic evaluation of Benin Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L.) Verdc.) varieties for their conservation and sustainable use in the actual context of climate change”. We express our sincere thanks to all the scientists, agricultural technicians and farmers the researchers met or interviewed during the survey.

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Correspondence to A. A. Gbaguidi.

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Gbaguidi, A.A., Dansi, A., Dossou-Aminon, I. et al. Agromorphological diversity of local Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) collected in Benin. Genet Resour Crop Evol 65, 1159–1171 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-017-0603-4

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Keywords

  • Bambara groundnut
  • Benin
  • Diversity
  • Landraces
  • Vigna subterranea
  • Yield