Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 433–447 | Cite as

Citrus genebank collections: international collaboration opportunities between the US and Russia

  • Gayle VolkEmail author
  • Lidiia Samarina
  • Raisa Kulyan
  • Vyacheslav Gorshkov
  • Valentina Malyarovskaya
  • Alexey Ryndin
  • MaryLou Polek
  • Robert Krueger
  • Ed Stover
Research Article


Citrus germplasm is conserved in genebanks at sites around the world to provide genetic resources for breeding and research programs. The value of genebank collections is particularly evident as diseases and climate change threaten citrus production areas. We provide historical, inventory, and maintenance information about national citrus collections in Russia and in the United States. The Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops (RRIFSC) in Sochi, Russia maintains a collection of 132 citrus accessions representing 50 taxa. Southern Russia is one of the most northerly citrus growing areas in the world and many accessions in the RRIFSC collection were specifically selected for cold tolerance to facilitate citrus production in this region. Tree response data taken during the frequent severe winters in Sochi has provided an understanding of the relative cold tolerance of many RRIFSC accessions. Particularly noteworthy is the array of cold-tolerant lemon accessions maintained at the RRIFSC. The Aurantioideae collections at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates (NCGRCD) and at the University of California Citrus Variety Collection in Riverside, California, maintain 1328 accessions of citrus cultivars and wild relatives. Because of federal and state quarantine regulations, accessions at this facility are tested for graft-transmissible pathogens and undergo therapy to eliminate known pathogens. In contrast to Sochi, desert-adapted lemon and grapefruit varieties are a major interest of the California-based collection. The collection of citrus and citrus relatives is being screened for resistance and/or tolerance genes to diseases such as huanglongbing which is currently threatening the US citrus industry. Through collaborative exchange efforts, the diversity in the two genebanks could be expanded to increase availability of desirable genetic resources to breeding and research communities throughout the world.


Citrus Cold hardiness Crop wild relatives Diversity Genebank 



The authors would like to thank Brittany Moreland for providing manuscript reviews. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial).

Human and animal rights

The authors have no research involving human participants and/or animals. The authorship order has been confirmed.

Supplementary material

10722_2017_543_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (31 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 31 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayle Volk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lidiia Samarina
    • 2
  • Raisa Kulyan
    • 2
  • Vyacheslav Gorshkov
    • 2
  • Valentina Malyarovskaya
    • 2
  • Alexey Ryndin
    • 2
  • MaryLou Polek
    • 3
  • Robert Krueger
    • 3
  • Ed Stover
    • 4
  1. 1.USDA-ARS-National Laboratory for Genetic Resources PreservationFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Federal Governmental Budgetary Scientific InstitutionRussian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical CropsSochiRussia
  3. 3.National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and DatesUSDA-ARSRiversideUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARS-US Horticultural Research LaboratoryFort PierceUSA

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