Skip to main content

Variation in the fruit characteristics of local pear (Pyrus spp.) in the Northwest of Iran


The Northwest of Iran has a high diversity of endemic Pyrus species. In this study, considerable variability in morphological and chemical characteristics was observed in the fruit of 19 local Pyranshahr pear accessions. Fruit samples of three accessions (14, 7 and 10) had higher contents of total soluble solids (TSS > 23 %) and total sugar (SC ~11.5 %) than other accessions with a mean SC of 9 %. There was significant positive correlation between SC and TSS (r = 0.40) as well as between SC and pH (r = 0.46). Cluster analysis of the studied parameters, which were used to ascertain the level of diversity, differentiated accessions into seven clusters with significant variability among them. This research shows that pear genetic resources in the Northwest of Iran show rich genetic diversity and could be useful germplasm for commercial exploitation, for use in breeding programs to improve existing cultivars, or for developing new cultivars.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. AOAC, Washington, DC, pp 440–510

    Google Scholar 

  • Bao L, Chen K, Zhang D, Cao Y, Yamamoto T, Teng Y (2007) Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54:959–971

  • Bell RL, Itai A (2011) Pyrus. In: Kole C (ed) Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources. Springer, Berlin, pp 147–177

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Blattny C (2003) Pears. In: Caballero B, Trugo LC, Finglas PM (eds) Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition. Academic Press, London, pp 4428–4433

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Boulton RB, Singleton VL, Bisson LF, Kunkee RE (1999) Juice and wine acidity. In: Principles and practices of winemaking. Springer, New York, pp 521–538

  • Challice JS, Westwood MN (1973) Numerical and taxonomical studies of genus Pyrus using both chemicals and botanical characters. Bot J Linn Soc 67:121–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen J, Wang Z, Wu J, Wang Q, Hu X (2007) Chemical compositional characterization of eight pear cultivars grown in China. Food Chem 104:268–275

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • de Souza VAB, Byrne DH, Taylor JF (1998) Heritability, genotypic and phenotypic correlations and predicted selection response of quantitative traits in peach. II. An analysis of several fruit traits. J Amer Soc Hortic Sci 123:604–611

    Google Scholar 

  • Dondini L, Sansavini S (2012) European pear. In: Badenes ML, Byrne DH (eds) Fruit breeding. Handbook of plant breeding, vol 8. Springer, New York, pp 369–413

    Google Scholar 

  • Elgar HJ, Watkins CB, Murray SH, Gunson FA (1997) Quality of ‘Buerre Bosc’ and ‘Doyenne du comice’ pears in relation to harvest date and storage period. Postharvest Biol Technol 10:29–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 2012. Accessed 18 Feb 2015)

  • Hancock JF, Lobos GA (2008) Pears. In: Hancock JF (ed) Temperate fruit crop breeding. Springer, Berlin, pp 299–336

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Hortwitz W (1960) Official and tentative methods of analysis. Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, pp 314–320

    Google Scholar 

  • Hudina M, Stampar F (2000) Sugars and organic acids contents of European (Pyrus communis L.) and Asian (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) pear cultivars. Acta Aliment 29:217–230

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hudina M, Stampar F (2005) The correlation of the pear (Pyrus communis L.) cv. ‘Williams’ yield quality to the foliar nutrition and water regime. Acta Agric Slov 85:179–185

    Google Scholar 

  • Itai A, Tanahashi T (2008) Inhibition of sucrose loss during cold storage in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by 1-MCP. Postharvest Biol Technol 48:355–363

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Katayama H, Uematsu C (2006) Pear (Pyrus species) genetic resources in Iwate. Genet Resour Crop Evol 53:483–498

  • Kaur K, Dhillon WS (2014) Influence of maturity and storage period on physical and biochemical characteristics of pear during post cold storage at ambient conditions. J Food Sci Technol. doi:10.1007/s13197-014-1620-3

    Google Scholar 

  • Li T, Li XY, Tan DM, Jiang ZY, Wei Y, Li JC, Du GD, Wang A (2014) Distinct expression profiles of ripening related genes in the ‘Nanguo’ pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) fruits. Sci Hortic 171:78–82

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paganová V (2009) The occurrence and morphological characteristics of the wild pear taxa in Slovakia. Hortic Sci 36:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  • Qin YH, Li GY, Ye ZX, Teixeira da Silva JA, Feng QR, Hu GB (2015) A comparative study between a late-ripening mutant of citrus and its original line in fruit coloration, sugar and acid metabolism at all fruit maturation stage. Fruits 70(1):5–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sadeghi L, Abdollahi H, Fakhraee Lahiji M (2008) National guideline for the conduct of tests for distinctness, Uniformity and Stability in Pear. Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute, pp 37 (in Farsi)

  • Silva GJ, Souza TM, Barbieri RL, de Oliveira AC (2014) Origin, domestication, and dispersing of pear (Pyrus spp.). Adv Agric 20:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • SPSS (1998) SPSS Base 80 user’s guide and SPSS applications guide. SPSS, Chicago, p 256

    Google Scholar 

  • Sun YW, Qian MJ, Wu RY, Niu QF, Teng YW, Zhang D (2014) Postharvest pigmentation in red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in response to optimum light and temperature. Postharvest Biol Technol 91:64–71

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tahzibi Hagh F, Abdollahi H, Ghasemi A, Fathi D (2011) Vegetative and reproductive traits of some Iranian native pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars based on DUF descriptor. Seed Plant Improv J 27(1):37–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Teng Y, Tanabe K (2004) Reconsideration on the origin of cultivated pears native to East Asia. Acta Hortic 634:175–182

  • Wang CY (1982) Pear fruit maturity, harvesting, storage and ripening. In: Zwet T, Childers NF (eds) The pear. Horticultural Publisher, Gainesville, pp 431–443

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Khoshnood Alizadeh or Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 555 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alizadeh, K., Fatholahi, S. & Teixeira da Silva, J.A. Variation in the fruit characteristics of local pear (Pyrus spp.) in the Northwest of Iran. Genet Resour Crop Evol 62, 635–641 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: