Skip to main content

Morphological variability in 17 wild elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) collections from southwest India

Abstract

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson is a tuberous herb occurring in the wild and cultivated state. Vegetative morphological characters were studied at full foliage stage in 17 accessions of A. paeoniifolius which include two cultivars, 15 wild accessions and a related species, A. dubius Blume. The first principal component (PC) accounted for 42.32% of phenotypic variance followed by second for another 18.38%. Major traits that accounted for more variability in both PC1 and PC2 include offset shape, cormel weight per corm, corm fresh weight, petiole surface pattern and canopy spread. The unweighted pair- group method with mathematical averaging (UPGMA) clustering method revealed three principal clusters which separated all the accessions between Euclidean distances of 0.3–1.6. Both cluster analysis and principal co-ordinate analysis revealed T10, a morphotype of A. paeoniifolius var. campanulatus (Decne.) Sivad. cultivated in Tamil Nadu and P19 accession of A. paeoniifolius var. paeoniifolius from Karnataka as morphologically distinct, which needs further validation on the basis of floral characters or molecular markers and G3 from Gujarat as an immediate ancestor of cultivated elephant foot yam. The genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation, broad sense heritability (h2B) and genetic advance (GA) as a percent of the mean assessed for 18 accessions revealed high heritability estimates. A highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation coefficient between circumference of petiole base and corm diameter, corm height, corm weight, east west spread and north south spread suggests that circumference of petiole and canopy spread are indicators to corm weight and size.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Abraham Z, Latha M, Asha KI, Varghese C, Lakhminarayan S, Pareek SK (2006) Minimal descriptors of agri-horticultural crops Part V: spices, tubers and plantation crops, NBPGR, Regional station, Thrissur, pp 102

  2. Abraham Z, Latha M, Brinda R (2008) Character association studies in elephant foot yam. J Root Crops 34:70–72

    Google Scholar 

  3. Anonymous (1998) The wealth of India–raw materials, vol 1- A. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, pp 233–234

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arakeri HR (1956) A note on the storage and germination requirements of seeds of Suran (A. campanulatus). Indian J Genet 1:27–29

    Google Scholar 

  5. Arbizu C, Blas R, Holle M, Vivanco F, Ghislain M (1997) Advances in the morphological characterization of oca, ulluco, mashua and arracacha. Program Report 1995–1996. International Potato Centre, Lima

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bala N, Wilson B, Manju VS, Sundaresan S (2007) Pharmacological properties of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius. In: Padmaja G, Premkumar T, Edison S, Bala N (eds) Root and tuber crops: proceedings of the national seminar on achievements and opportunities in post harvest management and value addition in root and tuber crops (NSTRC 2). Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, pp 325–328

    Google Scholar 

  7. Dansi A, Mignouna HD, Zoundjihekpon J, Sangare A, Asiedu R, Quin FM (1999) Morphological diversity, cultivar groups and possible descent in the cultivated yams (Dioscorea cayenensis-Dioscorea rotundata complex) of Benin Republic. Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:371–388

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dey KL (1896) The indigenous drugs of India, 2nd edn. Thacker Spink and Co., Calcutta

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dey YN, De S, Ghosh AK, Gaidhani S, Suman K, Jamal M (2011) Synergistic depressant activity of A. paeoniifolius in Swiss albino mice. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2:121–123

    PubMed  Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Drury CH (1873) The useful plants of India with notices of their chief medicinal value in commerce, medicine and the arts. Higginbotham and Co., Madras

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gamble JS (1967) Flora of the presidency of Madras, vol III. Botanical survey of India, Calcutta

    Google Scholar 

  12. Grob GBJ, Gravendeel B, Eurlings MCM, Hetterscheid WLA (2002) Phylogeny of tribe Thomsonieae (Araceae) based on chloroplast matK and trnL intron sequences. System Bot 27:453–467

    Google Scholar 

  13. Hanelt P, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (2001) Mansfeld’s encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops, vol 6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 2317–2340

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hetterscheid WLA, Ittenbach S (1996) Everything you always wanted to know about Amorphophallus but were afraid to stick your nose into. Aroideana 19:7–151

    Google Scholar 

  15. Hooker JD (1894) Flora of British India, vol V. I L Reeve & Co., London

    Google Scholar 

  16. Jaleel Abdul V, Sivadasan M, Alfarhan AH, Thomas J, Alatar AA (2011) Revision of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. Sect. Rhaphiophallus (Schott) Engl. (Araceae) in India. Bangladesh J Plant Taxon 18:1–26

    Google Scholar 

  17. Jayaweera DMA (1981) Medicinal plants used in ceylon Part I. National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo

    Google Scholar 

  18. Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE (1955) Estimates of genetic and environmental variability in soybeans. Agron J 47:314–318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kamruzzahan MM, Islam HR, Alam MF (2000) Variability and correlation studies in methods for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Bangladesh J Genet Biotech 1:21–26

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kay DE (1987) Root crops—crop and product digest 2. Tropical Development and Research Institute, London, p 380

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kirthikar KR, Basu BD (1987) Indian medicinal plants, vol IV. International Book Distributors, Dehradun

    Google Scholar 

  22. Laderman C (1983) Wives and midwives childbirth and nutrition in rural Malaysia. University of California Press, California, p 247

    Google Scholar 

  23. Lebot V (2009) Tropical root and tuber crops: cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids. Crop production science in horticulture (117). CAB Books, CABI, Wallingford

    Google Scholar 

  24. Mac Key J (1988) A plant breeder’s aspect on the taxonomy of cultivated plants. Biologisches Zentralblatt 107:369–379

    Google Scholar 

  25. Mayo SJ, Bogner J, Boyce PC (1997) The genera of Araceae. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew

    Google Scholar 

  26. Mondal AK (2005) Advanced plant taxonomy. Central Book Agency, Kolkotta

    Google Scholar 

  27. Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK (2000) Indian materia medica, vol I. Popular Prakashan, Mumbai

    Google Scholar 

  28. Nicolson DH (1982) Translation of Engler’s classification of Araceae with updating. Aroideana 5:67–88

    Google Scholar 

  29. Nicolson DH (1987) Araceae. In: Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR (eds) A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, vol. VI. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 17–101

    Google Scholar 

  30. Ochse JJ,Van der Brink RCB (1980) Vegetables of the Dutch East Indies. Amsterdam

  31. Okelola FS, Adebisi MA, Kehinde OB, Olewole AM (2007) Genotypic and phenotypic variability for seed vigour traits and seed yield in West African rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. J Am Sci 3:34–41

    Google Scholar 

  32. Pansey VG, Sukhatme PV (1985) Statistical methods for agricultural workers. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  33. Peeters JP, Martineelli JA (1989) Hierarchical cluster analysis as a tool to manage variation in germplasm collection. Theor Appl Genet 78:42–48

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Pissard A, Arbizu C, Ghislain M, Faux AM, Paulet S, Bertin P (2008) Congruence between morphological and molecular markers inferred from the analysis of the intra-morphotype genetic diversity and spatial structure of Oxalis tuberosa. Genetica 132:71–85

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Prajapathi ND, Purohit SS, Sharma AK, Kumar T (2004) A hand book of medicinal plants—a complete source book. Jodhpur, India

    Google Scholar 

  36. Purwal L, Shrivastava V, Jain UK (2011) Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of leaves of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius in experimental animals. Int J Pharmaceutical Sci Res 2:468–471

    Google Scholar 

  37. Raghu RV, Deepa C, Sundaran K (1999) A study of Soorana (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) the king of tubers. In: Balagopalan C, Nayar TVR, Sundaresan S, Lakshmi KR (eds) Tropical tuber crops in food security and nutrition. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, Calcutta, pp 10–14

    Google Scholar 

  38. Sedayu A, Eurlings MCM, Gravendeel B, Hettescheid WLA (2010) Morphological character evolution of Amorphophallus (Araceae) based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of trnL, rbcL and LEAFY second intron sequences. Bot Stud 51:473–490

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Sharma OP (2009) Plant taxonomy, 2nd edn. Tata Mc Graw Hill Education Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  40. Shilpi JA, Ray RK, Sarder SJ, Vddin SJ (2005) Analgesic activity of Amorphophallus campanulatus tubers. Fitoterapia 76:367–370

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Shirly RA, Palaniswami MS (2008) Performance of Gajendra in different states of India. In: Palaniswami MS, Shirly RA, Sajeev MS, Unnikrishnan M, Singh PP, Choudhury BC (eds) National Seminar on Amorphophallus: innovative technologies—abstract book, status papers and extended summary. Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvanathapuram, p 103

    Google Scholar 

  42. Singh SN, Gadgil M (1995) Ecology of Amorphophallus species of Uttara Kannada district of the Karnataka state, India: implications for conservation. Aroideana 18:5–18

    Google Scholar 

  43. Singh SK, Rajasekar N, Vinod Raj AN, Paramaguru R (2011) Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Amorphophallus campanulatus against acetaminophen–induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3:202–205

    Google Scholar 

  44. Siraj VV, Balachandran I (1994) Ayurvedic drugs and their plant sources. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  45. Sivadasan M, Jaleel AV (2000) Amorphophallus hirsutus Teysm. et Binn (Araceae): a new report from India. Rheedea 10:143–147

    Google Scholar 

  46. Sneath PHA, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical taxonomy. WH Freeman and Company, San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  47. Sreekumari MT (2000) Flowering, intervarietal hybridization, selfing and seed production in elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson). J Root Crops 26:18–22

    Google Scholar 

  48. Valentovaä K, Lebeda A, Dolezÿalovaä I, Jirovskyä D, Simonovska B, Vovk I, Kosina P, Gasmanovaä N, Dziechciarkovaä M, Ulrichovaä J (2006) The biological and chemical variability of yacon. J Agric Food Chem 54:1347–1352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Van der Ham R, Grob G, Hetterscheid WLA, Star W, Van Heuven B (2005) Notes on the genus Amorphophallus (Araceae)-13. Evolution of pollen ornamentation and ulrastructure in Amorphophallus and Pseudodracontium. Grana 44:252–265

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Veasey EA, Silva JRQ, Rosa MS, Borges A, Bressan EA, Peroni N (2007) Phenology and morphological diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) landraces of the Vale do Ribeira. Sci Agric 64:416–427

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Watt G (1889) Dictionary of economic plants of India, vol 2. Supt. Govt. Printing, Calcutta, India

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Dr. (Mrs.) Ashalatha S Nair, Professor and Head, Department of Botany, University of Kerala for providing facilities. Thanks are due to NBPGR, New Delhi for providing A. dubius germplasm. SRA is thankful to the Director, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala for granting study leave.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. A. Siril.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Anil, S.R., Siril, E.A. & Beevy, S.S. Morphological variability in 17 wild elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) collections from southwest India. Genet Resour Crop Evol 58, 1263–1274 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-011-9752-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Amorphophallus paeoniifolius
  • Genetic advance
  • Genotypic coefficient of variation
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Neglected and underutilized crops
  • Phenotypic coefficient of variation
  • Plant genetic resources
  • Wild accessions