Genetic variability and association studies in pod and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Haryana, India


Forty Candidate Plus Trees (CPTs) of Pongamia pinnata were selected based on the morphometric traits to identify suitable seed sources with high oil content and for production of quality seedlings for mass afforestation in different forestry and agroforestry programmes. Significant genetic variability and association were recorded among 40 CPTs for pod and seed traits. Maximum 100-seed weight (186.80 g) and pod-weight (403.94 g) was recorded in CPT-33, while CPT-18 showed maximum oil content (44.07%). In general, phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability (broad sense) and genetic gain observed for pod–seed ratio (99.00%, 87.78%), 100-seed weight (100.00%, 66.99%) and 100-pod weight (98.00%, 57.38%), respectively indicate additive gene action. Seed weight and pod weight showed positive and significant correlation with oil content. CPTs 18, 20, 33, 13 and 29 were found to be the best on the basis of oil content and pod–seed characters.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Bagachi SK (1995) Selection differential and predicted genetic gain in Tectona grandis. Ind. For. June: 482–490

  2. Baswa M, Rath CC, Dash SK, Mishra RK (2001) Antibacterial activity of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) and neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a preliminary report. Microbios 105:183–189

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Burkill JH (1966) A dictionary of economic products of Malay peninsula L. 2 vols. Art Printing Works, Kuala Lumpur

  4. Burton GW (1952) Quantitative inheritance in grass. Proc Sixth Int Silvae Genet 37:221–227

    Google Scholar 

  5. Chaurasia SC, Jain PC (1978) Antibacterial activity of essential oils of four medicinal plants. Ind J Hosp Pharm 15:166–168

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Dorman KW (1976) The genetics and breeding of southern pines. USDA For Serv Agric Handbook No. 471, p 407

  7. Gera M, Gera N, Sharma S (2001) Estimation of variability in growth characters of forty clones of Tectona grandis. Ind For 127:639–643

    Google Scholar 

  8. Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE (1955) Genotypic and phenotypic correlations on soyabean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and their implications in selection. Agron J 47:477–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kaushik N (2005) Inter and intra provenance variation in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana, Ph. D. Thesis, FRI Deemed University, Dhera Dun, India

  10. Kaushik N, Kaushik JC, Kumar S (2003) Response of Jatropha curcas to seed size and growing medium. J Non-Timber For Prod 10:40–42

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kumaran K (1991). Genetic analysis of seed and juvenile seedling attributes in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and pungam (Pongammia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre). M. Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, p 153

  12. Latha S, Mariamma J, Daniel M (2001) Studies on the effect of leaf leachates of Pongamia pinnata on certain crops and weeds and the soil microflora. Natl Acad Sci Lett 24:63–68

    Google Scholar 

  13. Lush KL (1940) Intrasite correlation and regression of spring on dams as a method of establishing heritability of characters. Proc Amer Soc Ani Prod 33:293–301

    Google Scholar 

  14. Panse VG, Sukhatme PV (1976) Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR, New Delhi, p 361

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ponnammal NR, Arjunan MC, Antony KA (1993) Seedling growth and biomass production in Hardwickia binata Roxb. as effected by seed size. Ind For 119:59–62

    Google Scholar 

  16. Saxena RC (1999) Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata L.), chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) extracts and commercial neem formulation against tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura F. In: Chari MS, Ramaprasad G, Sitaramaiah S, Murthy PSN, Singh RP (eds) Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Science Publishers, Inc; Enfield, USA, pp 111–119

    Google Scholar 

  17. Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lal J, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Raviprakash V, Kumar D (2003). Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Pongamia pinnata leaves. Phyto Res 17:259–264

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Zobel B, Talbert J (1984) Applied forest tree improvement. John Wiley and Sons, New York, p 505

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Naresh Kaushik.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kaushik, N., Kumar, S., Kumar, K. et al. Genetic variability and association studies in pod and seed traits of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre in Haryana, India. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54, 1827–1832 (2007).

Download citation


  • Genetic gain
  • Genotypic coefficient of variation
  • Heritability
  • Karanja
  • Leguminosae
  • Phenotypic coefficient of variation
  • Pongamia pinnata