Genetic Diversity of Traditional Chinese Mustard Crops Brassica juncea as Revealed by Phenotypic differences and RAPD Markers
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This investigation was aimed at exploring the genetic diversity among nine typical accessions of Chinese mustard crops using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and morphological comparison. Totally, 111 reproducible DNA bands were generated by 16 arbitrary primers, of which 91 bands were proved to be polymorphic. Based on pair-wise comparisons of the amplified bands, genetic similarities were obtained using Nei & Li's similarity coefficients and a dendrogram reflecting their relationships was made using the unweighted pair–group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). The result of cluster analysis indicated that the nine accessions were capable of being classified into two primary groups, one including accession 2 with expanded root (root mustard), accession 3 with entirely expanded whole stem (long-stem mustard), accession 6 with edible leaves (leaf mustard), accession 8 with edible seed stalk (seed stalk mustard) and another one including accession 4 with expanded basal stem (short-stem mustard), accession 5 with bulgy petiole (leafy bulgy mustard), and accession 9 with mustard-rich seed (seed mustard). Besides, accession 1 with expanded root (root mustard) and accession 7 with edible leaves and seed stalk (seed stalk mustard) were independent of other accessions in the dendrogram. Additionally, by cluster analysis based on highly reproducible RAPD markers, the accessions with similar edible parts of leaves or roots were not actually in the same phylogenetic groups. This implied that they were probably derived from different geographical origins with dissimilar genetic background and possessed higher genetic diversification. Furthermore, the results indicated that the traditional method for classifying Chinese mustard crops was not much reliable as it was largely dependent on phenotypic behaviors. Meanwhile, the phenotypic differences among individuals did not necessarily mean they must have sharp difference in genetic background as they met in the same group. Undoubtedly, these results aforementioned make this crop quite interesting to researchers for further investigating the molecular evolution of this special AABB group.
Key wordsBrassica juncea Genetic diversity Mustard crops Phenotype Phylogenesis RAPD
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