Skip to main content

Effect of Aluminum Chloride Addition on the Crystal Structure, Micromorphology, Dielectric Properties, and Ferroelectric Properties of BZT Ceramic

BaTiO3 ceramics are common components of capacitors, sensors, and actuators. Recent research has focused on improving the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 by using Zr ions for B-site substitution. Additional additives can further enhance ceramic performance. In this work, BaZr0.15Ti0.85O3 (BZT) ceramics were prepared by a solid-phase reaction at various contents of added Al ions. All of the ceramic samples had a perovskite cubic phase structure. Compared with BZT ceramics without added Al2O3 , the size of the grains increased considerably, and the grain size decreased slightly in accordance with increasing concentration of Al ions. Addition of Al ions considerably increased the density of the ceramics, yet excessive addition of Al ions decreased the density. The dielectric constants were relatively large when the Al ion content was 0.25 and 1.0 mol.%: 9117 and 8725 C2/(N · m2), respectively, at the Curie temperature. Compared with BZT ceramics without Al ions, the dielectric properties were greatly improved, by two different mechanisms (depending on the Al content). In accordance with increasing Al content, the hysteresis loop was narrower, the remanent polarization decreased, and the coercive electric field increased.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. J. F. Scott “Applications of modern ferroelectrics,” Science, 315(5814), 954 – 959 (2007).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. D. Hennings, A. Schnell, and G. Simon “Diffuse ferroelectric phase transitions in Ba (Ti1–yZry)O3 ceramics”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 65(11), 539 – 544 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Y. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Zhu, et. al., “Influence of Zr/Ti ratio on the dielectric properties of Ba(ZrxTi1–x)O3 ceramics for high-voltage capacitor applications,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 27(9), 9572 – 9576 (2016).

  4. H. Chen, C. Yang, C. Fu, et al., “Microstructure and dielectric properties of Ba(ZrxTi1–x)O3 ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 19(4), 379 – 382 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Y. Xu, K. Zhang, L. Fu, et al., “Effect of MgO addition on sintering temperature, crystal structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free BZT ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 30(8), 7582 – 7589 (2019).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. D. Shihua, S. Tianxiu, Y. Xiaojing, et al., “Effect of grain size of BaTiO3 ceramics on dielectric properties,” Ferroelectrics, 402(1), 55 – 59 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Y. A. Huang, B. Lu, Y. X. Zou, et al., “Grain size effect on dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric property of BaTiO3 ceramics with fine grains,” J. Inorg. Mater., 33(7), 767 – 772 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Z. Zhao, V. Buscaglia, M. Viviani, et al., “Grain-size effects on the ferroelectric behavior of dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B. Condens. Matter, 70(2), 2199 – 2208 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Y. Huan, X. Wang, J. Fang, et al., “Grain size effects on piezoelectric properties and domain structure of BaTiO3 ceramics prepared by two-step sintering,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96(11), 3369 – 3371 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Z. Sun, L. Li, H. Zheng, et al., “Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructure and dielectric properties of BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ceramics,” Ceram. Int., 41(9), 12158 – 12163 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. X. Si, B. Yang, H. Fei, et al., “Distinct effects of Ce doping in A or B sites on the electrocaloric effect of BaTiO3 ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd., 724(1), 163 – 168 (2017).

    Google Scholar 

  12. X. G. Tang, K. H. Chew, and H. L. W. Chan, “Diffuse phase transition and dielectric tunability of Ba(ZryTi1–y)O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramics,” Acta Mater., 52(17), 5177 – 5183 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. S. M. Neirman, “The Curie point temperature of Ba(Ti1–xZrxO3) solid solutions,” J. Mater. Sci., 23(11): 3973 – 3980 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. J. Miao, J. Yuan, H. Wu, et al., “Crystal orientation dependence of the dielectric properties for epitaxial BaZr0.15Ti0.85O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 90(2), 022903 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. M. L. V. Mahesh, V. V. Bhanu Prasad, and A. R. James, “Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and electrical properties of zirconium doped barium titanate ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 24(12), 4684 – 4692 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. E. Antonelli, M. Letonturier, J.-C. M’Peko, et al., “Microstructural, structural and dielectric properties of Er3+-modified BaTi0.85Zr0.15O3 ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 29(8), 1449 – 1455 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Z. Sun, Y. Pu, Z. Dong, et al., “Effect of Zr4+ content on the TC range and dielectric and ferroelectric properties of BaZrxTi1–xO3 ceramics prepared by microwave sintering,” Ceram. Int., 40(2), 3589 – 3594 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. A. V. Polotai, A. V. Ragulya, and C. A. Randall, “Preparation and size effect in pure nanocrystalline barium titanate ceramics,” Ferroelectrics, 288(1), 93 – 102 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. S. B. Reddy, M. S. R. Rao, and K. P. Rao, “Observation of high permittivity in Ho substituted BaZr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91(2), 022917 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. X. G. Tang, J.Wang, X. X.Wang, et al., “Effects of grain size on the dielectric properties and tunabilities of sol-gel derived Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 ceramics,” Solid State Commun., 131(3–4), 163 – 168 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51703121). We thank Michael Scott Long, PhD, from Edanz (, for editing a draft of this manuscript.

The Project Supported by Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (2021JM-486).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xu Yuan.

Additional information

Abstract published in Steklo i Keramika, No. 12, pp. 43 – 44, December, 2021.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kai-Tuo, Z., Yuan, X., Li-Gui, C. et al. Effect of Aluminum Chloride Addition on the Crystal Structure, Micromorphology, Dielectric Properties, and Ferroelectric Properties of BZT Ceramic. Glass Ceram 78, 506–511 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words

  • BZT
  • aluminum oxide
  • dielectric constant
  • solid-phase reaction