The evolution of binary neutron star post-merger remnants: a review

Abstract

Two neutron stars merge somewhere in the Universe approximately every 10 to 100 s, creating violent explosions potentially observable in gravitational waves and across the electromagnetic spectrum. The transformative coincident gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 gave invaluable insights into these cataclysmic collisions, probing bulk nuclear matter at supranuclear densities, the jet structure of gamma-ray bursts, the speed of gravity, and the cosmological evolution of the local Universe, among other things. Despite the wealth of information, it is still unclear when the remnant of GW170817 collapsed to form a black hole. Evidence from other short gamma-ray bursts indicates a large fraction of mergers may form long-lived neutron stars. We review what is known observationally and theoretically about binary neutron star post-merger remnants. From a theoretical perspective, we review our understanding of the evolution of short- and long-lived merger remnants, including fluid, magnetic-field, and temperature evolution. These considerations impact prospects of detection of gravitational waves from either short- or long-lived neutron star remnants which potentially allows for new probes into the hot nuclear equation of state in conditions inaccessible in terrestrial experiments. We also review prospects for determining post-merger physics from current and future electromagnetic observations, including kilonovae and late-time X-ray and radio afterglow observations.

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Fig. 1
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Notes

  1. 1.

    Ref. [45] claim a detection of gravitational waves following GW170817, although see Ref. [46] for a rebuttal of this work.

  2. 2.

    It is worth noting that the electromagnetic observations of GW170817 are consistent with a neutron star black hole merger, which would produce a black hole remnant. However, to claim GW170817 was a neutron star black hole merger, one must be able to explain the existence of black holes less massive than \(2\,M_{\odot }\).

  3. 3.

    This waveform is publicly available through the CoRe database of binary neutron star merger waveforms (waveform ID BAM:0035; [198]).

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Carl Knox for the creation of Fig. 1. We also thank Andrew Melatos, Toni Font, Eleonora Troja, and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This work is supported through Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence CE170100004, ARC Future Fellowship FT160100112 and ARC Discovery Project DP180103155. NS is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship.

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Sarin, N., Lasky, P.D. The evolution of binary neutron star post-merger remnants: a review. Gen Relativ Gravit 53, 59 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-021-02831-1

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Keywords

  • Binary neutron star mergers
  • Remnants
  • Gravitational waves
  • Gamma-ray bursts
  • Kilonovae