Neutron-star tidal deformability and equation-of-state constraints

Abstract

Despite their long history and astrophysical importance, some of the key properties of neutron stars are still uncertain. The extreme conditions encountered in their interiors, involving matter of uncertain composition at extreme density and isospin asymmetry, uniquely determine the stars’ macroscopic properties within General Relativity. Astrophysical constraints on those macroscopic properties, such as neutron-star masses and radii, have long been used to understand the microscopic properties of the matter that forms them. In this article we discuss another astrophysically observable macroscopic property of neutron stars that can be used to study their interiors: their tidal deformation. Neutron stars, much like any other extended object with structure, are tidally deformed when under the influence of an external tidal field. In the context of coalescences of neutron stars observed through their gravitational-wave emission, this deformation, quantified through a parameter termed the tidal deformability, can be measured. We discuss the role of the tidal deformability in observations of coalescing neutron stars with gravitational waves and how it can be used to probe the internal structure of Nature’s most compact matter objects. Perhaps inevitably, a large portion of the discussion will be dictated by GW170817, the most informative confirmed detection of a binary neutron-star coalescence with gravitational waves as of the time of writing.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The goal of this section is not to provide a historically or chronologically faithful account of progress in the field. The goal, rather, is to provide the logical steps—at least according to the author—that can lead from Eq. 8 for the \({\tilde{{\varLambda }}}\) definition to Fig. 7 for the equation-of-state constraints after GW170817 and GW190425.

  2. 2.

    Studies that reanalyze the gravitational-wave data directly [121, 210,211,212,213] rather than interpret the original constraints might also have differences in the waveform and noise model employed, the analysis bandwidth, and choice of stochastic sampler. All these should be subdominant compared to statistical errors.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Sophia Han for useful comments on this manuscript, as well as the LIGO and Virgo Collaboration Extreme Matter working group for invaluable discussions over the years. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation.

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Chatziioannou, K. Neutron-star tidal deformability and equation-of-state constraints. Gen Relativ Gravit 52, 109 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10714-020-02754-3

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Keywords

  • Binary neutron stars
  • Coalescence
  • Tidal deformation