Republication of: Contributions to Einstein’s theory of gravitation


This is the English translation by Jörg Frauendiener of a paper by Ludwig Flamm, first published in 1916, in which the author aims to render the conclusions of Einstein’s paper on the perihelion shift of Mercury and Schwarzschild’s (1916) papers clearer, more transparent and, in particular those relating to photon orbits, more accurate. The paper has been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Gary W. Gibbons, and by a brief biography of L. Flamm, written by Hubert Goenner and Malcolm A.H. MacCallum.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ludwig Flamm.

Additional information

An editorial note to this paper and a biography can be found in this issue preceding this Golden Oldie and online via doi: 10.1007/s10714-015-1907-3.

Original paper: Ludwig Flamm, Beiträge zur Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie, Physikalische Zeitschrift XVII (1916), pp. 448–454. Reprinted with the kind permission of Maria Zöllner (Ludwig Flamm’s daughter and heir) and Deutscher Apotheker Verlag. © Deutscher Apotheker Verlag 1916. Translated by Jörg Frauendiener,

L. Flamm (Deceased December 4, 1964)

Editorial responsibility: M. A. H. MacCallum, e-mail:

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Flamm, L. Republication of: Contributions to Einstein’s theory of gravitation. Gen Relativ Gravit 47, 72 (2015).

Download citation


  • Differential Geometry