Advertisement

Using Ground Penetrating Radar Methods to Investigate Reinforced Concrete Structures

  • Fabio TostiEmail author
  • Chiara Ferrante
Article

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on the subject of ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods for the investigation of reinforced concrete structures. An overview of the use of concrete and reinforced concrete in civil engineering infrastructures is given. A review of the main destructive and non-destructive testing methods in the field is presented, and an increase in the use of GPR to reinforced concrete structures is highlighted. It was also observed that research in some application areas has been predominantly or exclusively carried out at a laboratory scale, and that similarly, other more application-oriented research has been developed only on real-life structures. The effectiveness of GPR in these areas is demonstrated. Furthermore, a case study is presented on a new methodological and data processing approach for the assessment of reinforced concrete structures using a high-frequency dual-polarised antenna system. Results have proven the advantages of using the proposed methodology and GPR system in order to improve the detectability of rebars, including secondary bottom lines of reinforcement. The horizontal polarisation was proven to be more stable compared to the vertical. Finally, it has been demonstrated that a more accurate location of the rebars in a high-density grid mesh arrangement can be obtained by means of data migration processing with a scan spacing of 5 cm and wave velocity information through the use of the hyperbola fitting method from at least 30% of the targets.

Keywords

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) Reinforced concrete structures Non-destructive assessment Standard test methods in concrete Data sampling methodology for migration Rebar location 

Notes

References

  1. Abouhamad M, Dawood T, Jabri A, Alsharqawi M, Zayed T (2017) Corrosiveness mapping of bridge decks using image-based analysis of GPR data. Autom Constr 80:104–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ACI 228.2R-13 (2013) Report on nondestructive test methods for evaluation of concrete in structures. American Concrete Institute, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  3. ACI 318 (2014) Building code requirements for reinforced concrete. American Concrete Institute, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Qadi IL, Lahouar S (2005) Measuring rebar cover depth in rigid pavements with ground penetrating radar. Transp Res Rec 1907:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alani AM, Tosti F (2018) GPR applications in structural detailing of a major tunnel using different frequency antenna systems. Constr Build Mater 158:1111–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alani AM, Aboutalebi M, Kilic G (2013) Applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in bridge deck monitoring and assessment. J Appl Geophys 97:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alvarez JK, Sutjipto S, Kodagoda S (2017) Validated ground penetrating radar simulation model for estimating rebar location in infrastructure monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 2017 12th IEEE conference on industrial electronics and applications, pp 1460–1465Google Scholar
  8. Annan AP (2004) Ground penetrating radar: principles, procedures and applications. Sensors & Softwares Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. ASTM C1040/C1040M-16a (2016) Standard test methods for in-place density of unhardened and hardened concrete, including roller compacted concrete, by nuclear methods. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  10. ASTM C1150 (2002) Standard test method for the break OFF number of concrete, annual book of ASTM standards, vol 04.02, p 640Google Scholar
  11. ASTM C1583/C1583M-13 (2013) Standard test method for tensile strength of concrete surfaces and the bond strength or tensile strength of concrete repair and overlay materials by direct tension (pull-off method). ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  12. ASTM C42/C42M-18a (2018) Standard test method for obtaining and testing drilled cores and sawed beams of concrete. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  13. ASTM C597-16 (2016) Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  14. ASTM C803/C803M-18 (2018) Standard test method for penetration resistance of hardened concrete. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  15. ASTM C805/C805M-18 (2018) Standard test method for rebound number of hardened concrete. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  16. ASTM C876 (2009) Half-cell potentials of uncoated reinforcing steel in concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  17. ASTM D4748-15 (2015) Standard test method for determining the thickness of bound pavement layers using short-pulse radar. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  18. ASTM D4788 (2013) Detecting delaminations in bridge decks using infrared thermography. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  19. ASTM D6087-08e1 (2015) Evaluating asphalt covered concrete bridge decks using ground penetrating radar. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  20. ASTM D6432-11 (2011) Standard guide for using the surface ground penetrating radar method for subsurface investigation. American Society for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  21. ASTM D6760-16 (2016) Standard test method for integrity testing of concrete deep foundations by ultrasonic crosshole testing. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  22. Bachiri T, Khamlichi A, Bezzazi M (2018) Detection of rebar corrosion in bridge deck by using GPR. MATEC Web Conf 191:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barnes CL, Trottier JF, Forgeron D (2008) Improved concrete bridge deck evaluation using GPR by accounting for signal depth-amplitude effects. NDT&E Int 41:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barrile V, Pucinotti R (2005) Application of radar technology to reinforced concrete structures: a case study. NDT&E Int 38:596–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beena K, Shruti S, Sandeep S, Naveen K (2017) Monitoring degradation in concrete filled steel tubular sections using guided waves. Smart Struct Syst 19:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benedetto A (2013) A three dimensional approach for tracking cracks in bridges using GPR. J Appl Geophys 97:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benedetto A, Manacorda G, Simi A, Tosti F (2012) Novel perspectives in bridges inspection using GPR. Nondestruct Test Eval 27:3Google Scholar
  28. Benedetto A, Tosti F, Bianchini Ciampoli L, D’Amico F (2017) An overview of ground penetrating radar signal processing techniques for road inspection. Signal Process 132:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Billington DP (2004) Historical perspective on prestressed concrete. PCI J 49:14–30Google Scholar
  30. Bogas JA, Gomes MG, Gomes A (2013) Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. Ultrasonics 53:962–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bouichou M, Marie Victoire E, Jourdan H, Thauvin B, Queguiner R, Olmi R, Riminesi C (2018) Measurement of water content and salinity index in concrete by evanescent field dielectrometry. J Cult Herit 34:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. BS 1881-204 (1988) Recommendations on the use of electromagnetic covermeters. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. BS 1881-205 (1986) Testing concrete. Recommendations for radiography of concrete. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. BS 1881-207 (1992) Recommendations for the assessment of concrete strength by near-to-surface tests. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. BS 1881-208 (1996) Methods for the determination of initial surface absorption. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. BS 8110 (2003) Part 2 structural use of concrete. Code of practice for special circumstances. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Bs EN 12504-1:2009 (2009) Testing concrete in structures. Cored specimens. Taking, examining and testing in compression. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Bs EN 12504-2 (2013) Testing concrete in structures. Non-destructive testing. Determination of rebound number. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Bs EN 12504-4:2004 (2004) Testing concrete. Determination of ultrasonic pulse velocity. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Bs EN 1542 (1999) Products and systems for the repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Measurements of bond strength by pull-off. British Standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Bungey JH (2004) Sub-surface radar testing of concrete: a review. Constr Build Mater 18:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bungey JH, Millard SG (1993) Radar inspection of structures. Proc Inst Civ Eng Struct Br 99:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bungey JH, Millard SG, Shaw MR (1993) The influence of reinforcing steel on radar surveys of concrete structures. Constr Build Mater 8:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bungey JH, Shaw MR, Millard SG, Molyneaux TCK (2003) Location of steel re-inforcement in concrete using ground penetrating radar and neural networks. Structural faults and repair. Engineering Technics Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Bungey JH, Millard SG, Grantham MG (2006) Testing of concrete in structures, 4th edn. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Cantor TR (1984) Review of penetrating radar as applied to the non-destructive testing of concrete. Am Concr Inst 20:581–602Google Scholar
  47. Carino NJ (2004) Pull-out test. Handbook on non-destructive testing of concreteGoogle Scholar
  48. Cassidy NJ, Eddies R, Dods S (2011) Void detection beneath reinforced concrete sections: the practical application of ground penetrating radar and ultrasonic techniques. J Appl Geophys 74(4):263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chang CW, Lin CH, Lien HS (2009) Measurement radius of reinforcing steel bar in concrete using digital image GPR. Constr Build Mater 23(2):1057–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Daniels DJ (2004) Ground penetrating radar, 2nd edn. The Institution of Electrical Engineers, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dérobert X, Iaquinta J, Klysz G, Balayssac JP (2008) Use of capacitive and GPR techniques for the non-destructive evaluation of cover concrete. NDT&E Int 41(1):44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dinh K, Gucunski N, Kim J, Duong TH (2016) Understanding depth-amplitude effects in assessment of GPR data from concrete bridge decks. NDT&E Int 83:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fegen I, Forde MC, Whittington HW (1979) The detection of voids in concrete piles using sonic methods. In: Colloque International sur les Méthodes de Contrôle non Destructif GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  54. Fontul S, Solla M, Pajewski L (2018) Ground penetrating radar investigations in the Noble Hall of São Carlos Theater in Lisbon Portugal. Surv Geophys 39:1125–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Forde MC (2004) Ground penetrating radar: introduction to nondestructive evaluation technologies for bridges. In: Transportation research board pre-conference workshopGoogle Scholar
  56. Gagarin M, Mekemson J (2016) Step-frequency ground penetrating-radar array calibration requirements to estimate dielectric properties of pavements. Near Surf Geophys 14(2):105–110Google Scholar
  57. Giannakis I, Giannopoulos A, Warren C (2019) A machine learning based fast forward solver for ground penetrating radar with application to full waveform inversion. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2019.2891206 Google Scholar
  58. Giannopoulos A (2005) Modelling of ground penetrating radar using GprMax. Constr Build Mater 19:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gizzi FT, Leucci G (2018) Global research patterns on ground penetrating radar (GPR). Surv Geophys 39(6):1039–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grinzato E, Ludwig N, Cadelano G, Bertucci M, Gargano M, Bison P (2011) Infrared thermography for moisture detection: a laboratory study and in-situ test. Mater Eval 69(1):97–104Google Scholar
  61. Guida A, Pagliuca A, Tranquillino Minerva A (2012) A “Non-invasive” technique for qualifying the reinforced concrete structure. Int J Geophys 2012:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Halabe UB, Chen HL, Bhandarkar V, Sami Z (1997) Detection of sub-surface anomalies in concrete bridge decks using ground penetrating radar. Mater J 94(5):396–408Google Scholar
  63. Hamasaki H, Uomoto T, Ikenaga H, Kishi K, Yoshimura A (2003) Identification of reinforced in concrete by electro-magnetic methods. In: International symposium non-destructive testing in civil engineeringGoogle Scholar
  64. Hasan MI, Yazdani N (2014) Ground penetrating radar utilization in exploring inadequate concrete covers in a new bridge deck. Case Stud Constr Mater 1:104–114Google Scholar
  65. Hashemi A (2016) Microwave material characterization of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gel in cementitious materials. Dissertation, University of Science and Technology, HarrisburgGoogle Scholar
  66. Hollema DA, Olson LD (2003) Crosshole sonic logging and velocity tomography imaging of drilled shaft foundations. In: International symposium in non-destructive testing in civil engineering.Google Scholar
  67. Holt FB, Eales JW (1987) Nondestructive evaluation of pavements. Concr Int 9(6):41–45Google Scholar
  68. Hubbard SS, Zhang J, Monteiro PJM, Petrson JE, Rubin Y (2003) Experimental detection of reinforcing bar corrosion using nondestructive geophysical techniques. ACI Mater 100:501–509Google Scholar
  69. Hugenschmidt J (2002) Concrete bridge inspection with a mobile GPR system. Constr Build Mater 16:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hugenschmidt J, Loser R (2008) Detection of chlorides and moisture in concrete structures with ground penetrating radar. Mater Struct 41:785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hugenschmidt J, Kalogeropulos A, Soldovieri F, Prisco G (2010) Processing strategies for high-resolution GPR concrete inspections. NDT&E Int 43:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kalogeropoulos A, van der Kruk J, Hugenschmidt J, Bikowski J, Brühwiler E (2013) Full-waveform GPR inversion to assess chloride gradients in concrete. NDT&E Int 57:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kien D, Nenad G, Trung HD (2018) Migration-based automated rebar picking for condition assessment of concrete bridge decks with ground penetrating radar. NDT&E Int 98:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kim W, Ismail AM, Anderson NL, Atekwana EA, Buccellato A (2003) Non-destructive testing (NDT) for corrosion in bridge decks using ground penetrating radar (GPR). In: The 3rd international conference on the application of geophysical methodologies and NDT to transportation facilities and infrastructure, pp 8–12Google Scholar
  75. Klysz G, Balayssa JP, Laurens S (2004) Spectral analysis of radar surface waves for non-destructive evaluation of cover concrete. NDT&E Int 37(3):221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Knoll MD (1996) A petrophysical basis for ground penetrating radar and very early time electromagnetics. Dissertation, The University of British Columbia, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  77. Kohl C, Streicher D (2006) Results of reconstructed and fused NDT-data measured in the laboratory and on-site at bridges. Cem Concr Compos 28(4):402–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lachowicz J, Rucka M (2018) 3-D finite-difference time-domain modelling of ground penetrating radar for identification of rebars in complex reinforced concrete structures. Arch Civ Mech Eng 18:1228–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lai WL, Tsang WF (2008) Characterization of pore systems of air/water-cured concrete using ground penetrating radar (GPR) through continuous water injection. Constr Build Mater 22(3):250–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lai WL, Kou SC, Tsang WF, Poon CS (2009) Characterization of concrete properties from dielectric properties using ground penetrating radar. Cem Concr Res 39:687–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Laurens S, Rhazi J, Balayssac JP, Arliguie G (2000) Assessment of corrosion in reinforced concrete by ground penetrating radar and half-cell potential tests. In: RILEM workshop on life prediction and aging management of concrete structuresGoogle Scholar
  82. Laurens S, Balayssac JP, Rhazi J, Klysz G, Arliguie G (2005) Non-destructive evaluation of concrete moisture by GPR: experimental study and direct modelling. Mater Struct 38:827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee HK, Lee KM, Kim YH, Yim H, Bae DB (2004) Ultrasonic in-situ monitoring of setting process of high-performance concrete. Cem Concr Res 34(4):631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Leshchinsky AM, Leshchinsky My Goncharova AS (1990) Within-test variability of some non-destructive methods for concrete strength determination. Mag Concr Res 42:245–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Levitt M (1969) Non-destructive testing of concrete by the initial surface absorption method. In: Proceedings of the symposium on NDT of concrete and timber, pp 23–36Google Scholar
  86. Loizos A, Plati C (2007) Accuracy of ground penetrating radar horn-antenna technique for sensing pavement subsurface. IEEE Sens 7(5):842–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Louzli A, Al-Qadi IL, Lahouar S (2002) Ground penetrating radar signal modelling to assess concrete structures. Mater J 99(3):282–291Google Scholar
  88. Maierhofer C, Arndt R, Röllig M, Rieck C, Walther A, Scheel H, Hillemeier B (2006) Application of impulse-thermography for non-destructive assessment of concrete structures. Cem Concr Compos 28(4):393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Manning DG, Holt FB (1980) Detecting delamination in concrete bridge decks. Concr Int 2:34–41Google Scholar
  90. Martino N, Maser K, Birken R, Wang M (2014) Determining ground penetrating radar amplitude thresholds for the corrosion state of reinforced concrete bridge decks. J Environ Eng Geophys 19(3):175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McCann DM, Forde MC (2001) Review of NDT methods in the assessment of concrete and masonry structures. NDT&E Int 34:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mechbal Z, Khamlichi A (2017) Determination of concrete rebars characteristics by enhanced post-processing of GPR scan raw data. NDT&E Int 89:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Meng D, Lin S, Azari H (2019) Nondestructive corrosion evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge decks with overlays: an experimental study. J Test Eval 48:1Google Scholar
  94. Miramini S, Sofi M, Aseem A, Baluwala A, Zhang L, Mendis P, Duffield C (2018) Health assessment of a pedestrian bridge deck using ground penetrating radar. Electron J Struct Eng 18:30–37Google Scholar
  95. Mishin AV (1997) Portable linear electron accelerators for electron beam curing of composites, non-destructive testing and other applications. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on structural faults and repair, vol 2, pp 367–373Google Scholar
  96. Mitchell TW (1991) Radioactive/nuclear methods. Handb Nondestruct Test Concr 10:227–252Google Scholar
  97. Moussard M, Garibaldi P, Curbach M (2017) The invention of reinforced concrete (1848–1906) high tech concrete: where technology and engineering meet. In: Proceedings of the 2017 fib symposium, pp 2785–2794Google Scholar
  98. Narayanan RM, Hudson SG, Kumke CJ (1998) Detection of rebar corrosion in bridge decks using statistical variance of radar reflected pulses. In: Proceedings of 7th international conference on ground penetrating radarGoogle Scholar
  99. Narayanan RM, Hudson SG, Kumke CJ, Beacham MW, Hall DD (2003) Nebraska DOR tests GPR to find bridge corrosion. Better Roads 73:70–73Google Scholar
  100. Neville AM, Brooks JJ (2010) Concrete technology, 2nd edn. England Prentice Hall 2010, Harlow, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Noon DA (1995) Stepped-frequency radar design and signal processing Enhances ground penetrating radar performance. Dissertation, University of Queensland St Lucia AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  102. Ottosen NS (1981) Nonlinear finite element analysis of pull-out test. J Struct. 107:591–603Google Scholar
  103. Patriarca C, Lambot S, Mahmoudzadeh MR, Minet J, Slob EC (2011) Reconstruction of sub-wavelength fractures and physical properties of masonry media using full-waveform inversion of proximal penetrating radar. J Appl Geophys 74:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Plati C, Georgiou P, Loizos A (2014) Use of infrared thermography for assessing HMA paving and compaction. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol 46:192–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Popovics S, Rose JL, Popovics JS (1990) The behaviour of ultrasonic pulses in concrete. Cem Concr Res 20(2):259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pucinotti R, De Lorenzo RA (2006) Nondestructive in situ testing for the seismic damageability assessment of ancient r/c structures. In: Book of proceedings 3rd international conference on NDT, pp 189–94Google Scholar
  107. Pucinotti R, Hinterholz L, D’Elia A, De Lorenzo RA (2007) Influence of steel reinforcement on ultrasonic pulses velocity. In: Book of proceedings, 4th international conference on NDT, pp 189–194Google Scholar
  108. Raju RK, Hasan MI, Yazdani N (2018) Quantitative relationship involving reinforcing bar corrosion and ground penetrating radar amplitude. ACI Mater J 115:131–137Google Scholar
  109. Rhim HC (2001) Condition monitoring of deteriorating concrete dams using radar. Cem Concr Res 31(3):363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rhim HC, Buyukozturk O (1998) Electromagnetic properties of concrete at microwave frequency range. ACI Mater J 95(3):262–271Google Scholar
  111. Rocha JHA, Santos CF, Póvoas YV (2018) Evaluation of the infrared thermography technique for capillarity moisture detection in buildings. Proc Struct Integr 11:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sbartaï ZM, Laurens S, Viriyametanont K, Balayssac JP, Arliguie G (2009a) Non-destructive evaluation of concrete physical condition using radar and artificial neural networks. Constr Build Mater 23:837–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sbartaï ZM, Laurens S, Breysse D (2009b) Concrete moisture assessment using radar NDT technique—comparison between time and frequency domain analysis. In: NDTCE’09 non-destructive testing in civil engineering NantesGoogle Scholar
  114. Seren A, Saricicek I (2017) Investigation of concrete internal structures with GPR method. In: 23rd European meeting of environmental and engineering geophysicsGoogle Scholar
  115. Sharp JH (2006) Surely we know all about cement—Don't we? Adv Appl Ceram 105(4):162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shaw MR, Molyneaux TCK, Millard SG, Taylor MJ, Bungey JH (2003) Assessing bar size of steel reinforcement in concrete using ground penetrating radar and neural networks. Insight Nondestruct Test Cond Monit 45:813–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shaw MR, Millard SG, Molyneaux TCK, Taylor MJ, Bungey JH (2005) Location of steel reinforcement in concrete using ground penetrating radar and neural networks. NDT&E Int 38:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shi X, Xie N, Fortune K, Gong J (2012) Durability of steel reinforced concrete in chloride environments: an overview. Constr Build Mater 30:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shihab S, Al-Nuaimy W (2005) Radius estimation for cylindrical objects detected by ground penetrating radar. Subsurf Sens Technol Appl 6:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Soldovieri F, Persico R, Utsi E, Utsi V (2006) The application of inverse scattering techniques with ground penetrating radar to the problem of rebar location in concrete. NDT&E Int 39(7):602–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Soutsos MN, Bungey JH, Millard SG, Shaw MR Patterson A (2001) Dielectric properties of concrete and their influence on radar testing. NDT&E Int 34:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stanley CC, Balendran RV (1995) Developments in assessing the structural integrity of applied surfaces to concrete buildings and structures using infra-red thermography. Proc Int Conf Struct Faults Repair 3:39–44Google Scholar
  123. Stoll UW (1985) Compressive strength measurement with the Stoll tork test. Concr Int 7:42–47Google Scholar
  124. Stryk J, Matula R, Pospisil K (2013) Possibilities of ground penetrating radar usage within acceptance tests of rigid pavements. J App Geophys 97:11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Stryk J, Matula R, Pospíšil K, Dérobert X, Simonin JM, Alani AM (2017) Comparative measurements of ground penetrating radars used for road and bridge diagnostics in the Czech Republic and France. Constr Build Mater 154:1199–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tillard S, Dubois JC (1995) Analysis of GPR data: wave propagation velocity determination. J Appl Geophys 33:77–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Titman DJ (2001) Applications of thermography in non-destructive testing of structures. NDT&E Int 34(2):149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tosti F, Slob E (2015) Determination, by using GPR of the volumetric water content in structures, substructures, foundations and soil, civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar. Springer Transaction in Civil and Environmental Engineering, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  129. Tosti F, Munisami KJ, Sofroniou A, Alani AM, Benedetto F (2018) A sampling investigation of GPR wave propagation velocity data to improve migration processing of concrete rebars. In: 41st international conference on telecommunications and signal processing (TSP)Google Scholar
  130. Trtnik G, Kavčič F, Turk G (2009) Prediction of concrete strength using ultrasonic pulse velocity and artificial neural networks. Ultrasonics 49(1):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ulricksen CPF (1982) Application of impulse radar to civil engineering. Dissertation, Department of Engineering Geology Lund University of Technology, LundGoogle Scholar
  132. Utsi V, Utsi E (2004) Measurement of reinforcement bar depths and diameters in concrete. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on ground penetrating radarGoogle Scholar
  133. Villain G, Dérobert X, Sbartaï ZM, Balayssac JP (2010) Evaluation of concrete water content and other durability indicators by electromagnetic measurements. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on ground penetrating radarGoogle Scholar
  134. Wang ZW, Zhou M, Slabaugh GG, Zhai J, Fang T (2011) Automatic detection of bridge deck condition from ground penetrating radar images. IEEE Trans Autom Sci Eng 8(3):633–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wight JK, MacGregor JG (2012) Reinforced concrete: mechanics and design, 7th edn. Pearson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  136. Wilson MA, Taylor SC, Hoff WD (1998) The initial surface absorption test (ISAT): an analytical approach. Mag Concr Res 50:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wiwatrojanagul P, Sahamitmongkol R, Tangtermsirikul S, Khamsemanan N (2017) A new method to determine locations of rebars and estimate cover thickness of RC structures using GPR data. Constr Build Mater 140:257–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Zanzi L (2012) Modelling GPR data to understand the problems in rebar size measurements. In: Emerging technologies in non-destructive testing V-proceedings of the 5th conference on emerging technologies in NDT, pp 453–457Google Scholar
  139. Zanzi L, Arosio D (2013) Sensitivity and accuracy in rebar diameter measurements from dual-polarized GPR data. Constr Build Mater 48:1293–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhou F, Chen Z, Liu H, Cui J, Spencer BF, Fang G (2018) Simultaneous estimation of rebar diameter and cover thickness by a GPR–EMI dual sensor. Sensors 6–18(9)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computing and EngineeringUniversity of West London (UWL)LondonUK
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringRoma Tre UniversityRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations