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Surveys in Geophysics

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1133–1169 | Cite as

Electromagnetic Monitoring of Hydraulic Fracturing: Relationship to Permeability, Seismicity, and Stress

  • Stephan ThielEmail author
Article

Abstract

Hydraulic fracking is a geoengineering application designed to enhance subsurface permeability to maximize fluid and gas flow. Fracking is commonly used in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), tight shale gas, and coal seam gas (CSG) plays and in \(\hbox {CO}_2\) storage scenarios. Common monitoring methods include microseismics and mapping small earthquakes with great resolution associated with fracture opening at reservoir depth. Recently, electromagnetic (EM) methods have been employed in the field to provide an alternative way of direct detection of fluids as they are pumped in the ground. Surface magnetotelluric (MT) measurements across EGS show subtle yet detectable changes during fracking derived from time-lapse MT deployments. Changes are directional and are predominantly aligned with current stress field, dictating preferential fracture orientation, supported by microseismic monitoring of frack-related earthquakes. Modeling studies prior to the injection are crucial for survey design and feasibility of monitoring fracks. In particular, knowledge of sediment thickness plays a fundamental role in resolving subtle changes. Numerical forward modeling studies clearly favor some form of downhole measurement to enhance sensitivity; however, these have yet to be conclusively demonstrated in the field. Nevertheless, real surface-based monitoring examples do not necessarily replicate the expected magnitude of change derived from forward modeling and are larger than expected in some cases from EGS and CSG systems. It appears the injected fluid volume alone cannot account for the surface change in resistivity, but connectedness of pore space is also significantly enhanced and nonlinear. Recent numerical studies emphasize the importance of percolation threshold of the fracture network on both electrical resistivity and permeability, which may play an important role in accounting for temporal changes in surface EM measurements during hydraulic fracking.

Keywords

Hydraulic fracking Electromagnetic monitoring Magnetotellurics Permeability Stress 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Ian Ferguson, and the other members of the Program Committee of the 23rd EM Induction Workshop for giving me the opportunity to present this review. I would also like to acknowledge numerous colleagues I worked with on this problem over the years, in particular Jared Peacock, who performed the pioneering analyses on the Paralana EGS. Subsequently, Yohannes Didana, Alison Kirkby, Jake MacFarlane, Graham Heinson, and many others greatly furthered research in this field. The South Australian Center for Geothermal Energy Research, guided by Martin Hand, supported a fellowship throughout the first few years of the EM monitoring research. Australian geothermal companies Petratherm Ltd and Geodynamics allowed access to their EGS plays, making this research possible in the first place. Paul Glover and an anonymous reviewer helped to improve this manuscript.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Survey of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.School of Physical SciencesThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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