Skip to main content
Log in

Unexpected Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Events Recorded by the Ionospheric Satellite DEMETER

  • Published:
Surveys in Geophysics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

DEMETER was a low Earth orbiting microsatellite in operation between July 2004 and December 2010. Its scientific objective was the study of ionospheric perturbations in relation to seismic activity and man-made activities. Its payload was designed to measure electromagnetic waves over a large frequency range as well as ionospheric plasma parameters (electron and ion densities, fluxes of energetic charged particles). This paper will show both expected and unusual events recorded by the satellite when it was in operation. These latter events have been selected from the DEMETER database because they are rare or even have never been observed before, because they have a very high intensity, or because they are related to abnormalities of the experiments under particular plasma conditions. Some events are related to man-made radio waves emitted by VLF ground-based transmitters or power line harmonic radiation. Natural waves, such as atypical quasi-periodic emissions or uncommon whistlers, are also shown.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Bell TF (1985) High-amplitude VLF transmitter signals and associated sidebands observed near the magnetic equatorial plane on the ISEE 1 satellite. J Geophys Res 90(A3):2792–2806

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bell TF, Inan US, Helliwell RA (1981) Nonducted coherent VLF waves and associated triggered emissions observed on the ISEE-1 satellite. J Geophys Res 86(A6):4649–4670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bell TF, Luette JP, Inan US (1982) ISEE 1 observations of VLF line radiation in the Earth’s magnetosphere. J Geophys Res 87(A5):3530–3536

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bell TF, Inan US, Piddyachiy D, Kulkarni P, Parrot M (2008) Effects of plasma density irregularities on the pitch angle scattering of radiation belt electrons by signals from ground based VLF transmitters. Geophys Res Lett 35:L19103. doi:10.1029/2008GL034834

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bell TF, Graf K, Inan US, Piddyachiy D, Parrot M (2011) DEMETER observations of ionospheric heating by powerful VLF transmitters. Geophys Res Lett 38:L11103. doi:10.1029/2011GL047503

    Google Scholar 

  • Berthelier JJ, Malingre M, Pfaff R, Seran E, Pottelette R, Jasperse J, Lebreton JP, Parrot M (2008) Lightning-induced plasma turbulence and ion heating in equatorial ionospheric depletions. Nat Geosci 1:101–105. doi:10.1038/ngeo109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bespalov PA, Parrot M, Manninen J (2010) Short-period VLF emissions as solitary envelope waves in a magnetospheric plasma maser. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 72:1275–1281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clilverd MA, Rodger CJ, Gamble R, Meredith NP, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ, Thomson NR (2008) Ground-based transmitter signals observed from space: ducted or nonducted? J Geophys Res 113:A04211. doi:10.1029/2007JA012602

    Google Scholar 

  • Colpitts CA, Cattell CA, Kozyra JU, Parrot M (2012) Satellite observations of banded VLF emissions in conjunction with energy-banded ions during very large geomagnetic storms. J Geophys Res 117:A10211. doi:10.1029/2011JA017329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cussac T, Clair MA, Ultré-Guerard P, Buisson F, Lassalle-Balier G, Ledu M, Elisabelar C, Passot X, Rey N (2006) The DEMETER microsatellite and ground segment. Planet Space Sci 54:413–427. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dao E, Kelley MC, Roddy P, Retterer J, Ballenthin JO, de La Beaujardiere O, Su YJ (2011) Longitudinal and seasonal dependence of nighttime equatorial plasma density irregularities during solar minimum detected on the C/NOFS satellite. Geophys Res Lett 38:L10104. doi:10.1029/2011GL047046

    Google Scholar 

  • El-Lemdani Mazouz F, Pinçon JL, Parrot M, de Feraudy H, Lehtinen NG, Lefeuvre F (2011) Asymmetric V-shaped streaks recorded on board DEMETER satellite above powerful thunderstorms. J Geophys Res 116:A11321. doi:10.1029/2011JA016794

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fiser J, Chum J, Diendorfer G, Parrot M, Santolik O (2010) Whistler intensities above thunderstorms. Ann Geophys 28:37–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gamble RJ, Rodger CJ, Clilverd MA, Sauvaud JA, Thomson NR, Stewart SL, McCormick RJ, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ (2008) Radiation belt electron precipitation by man-made VLF transmissions. J Geophys Res 113:A10211. doi:10.1029/2008JA013369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayosh M, Pasmanik DL, Demekhov AG, Santolik O, Parrot M, Titova EE (2013) Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: a case study. J Geophys Res Space Phys. doi:10.1002/jgra.50179

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayosh M, Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M (2014) Statistical investigation of VLF quasi-periodic emissions measured by the DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:8063–8072. doi:10.1002/2013JA019731

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Helliwell RA, Katsufrakis JP, Bell TF, Raghuram R (1975) VLF line radiation in the Earth’s magnetosphere and its association with power system radiation. J Geophys Res 80(31):4249–4258

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang C-S, de La Beaujardiere O, Roddy PA, Hunton DE, Liu JY, Chen SP (2014) Occurrence probability and amplitude of equatorial ionospheric irregularities associated with plasma bubbles during low and moderate solar activities (2008–2012). J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:1186–1199. doi:10.1002/2013JA019212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • James HG, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ (2012) Very-low-frequency saucers observed on DEMETER. J Geophys Res 117:A09309. doi:10.1029/2012JA017965

    Google Scholar 

  • Lagoutte D, Berthelier JJ, Lebreton JP, Parrot M, Sauvaud JA (2005) DEMETER microsatellite-scientific mission center-data user guide. DMT-OP-7-CS-6124-LPC v1.0

  • Lagoutte D, Brochot JY, de Carvalho D, Elie F, Harivelo F, Hobara Y, Madrias L, Parrot M, Pinçon JL, Berthelier JJ, Peschard D, Seran E, Gangloff M, Sauvaud JA, Lebreton JP, Stverak S, Travnicek P, Grygorczuk J, Slominski J, Wronowski R, Barbier S, Bernard P, Gaboriaud A, Wallut JM (2006) The DEMETER science mission centre. Planet Space Sci 54(5):428–440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebreton JP, Stverak S, Travnicek P, Maksimovic M, Klinge D, Merikallio S, Lagoutte D, Poirier B, Kozacek Z, Salaquarda M (2006) The ISL Langmuir probe experiment and its data processing onboard DEMETER: scientific objectives, description and first results. Planet Space Sci 54(5):472–486

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lefeuvre F, Blanc E, Pinçon JL, Roussel-Dupré R, Lawrence D, Sauvaud JA, Rauch JL, Feraudy H, Lagoutte D (2008) TARANIS—a satellite project dedicated to the physics of TLEs and TGFs. Space Sci Rev 137:301–315. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9414-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li X, Ma Y, Wang P, Wang H, Lu H, Zhang X, Huang J, Shi F, Yu X, Yanbing X, Meng X, Wang H, Zhao X, Parrot M (2012) Study of the North West Cape electron belts observed by DEMETER satellite. J Geophys Res 117:A04201. doi:10.1029/2011JA017121

    Google Scholar 

  • Malingre M, Berthelier JJ, Pfaff R, Jasperse J, Parrot M (2008) Lightning-induced lower-hybrid turbulence and trapped extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves observed in deep equatorial plasma density depletions during intense magnetic storms. J Geophys Res 113:A11320. doi:10.1029/2008JA013463

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Manninen J (2005) Some aspects of ELF–VLF emissions in geophysical research, vol 98. Oulu University Press, Oulu

    Google Scholar 

  • McIlwain CE (1961) Coordinates for mapping the distribution of magnetically trapped particles. J Geophys Res 66(11):3681–3691

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ (2006) Power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) observed by the DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res 111:A04308. doi:10.1029/2005JA011480

    Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ (2007a) Comparison of magnetospheric line radiation and power line harmonic radiation: a systematic survey using the DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res 112:A04301. doi:10.1029/2006JA012134

    Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ (2007b) Power line harmonic radiation: a systematic study using DEMETER spacecraft. Adv Space Res 40(3):398–403. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.01.074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Bortnik J (2008) Power line harmonic radiation observed by satellite: properties and propagation through the ionosphere. J Geophys Res 113:A08317. doi:10.1029/2008JA013184

    Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Parrot M, Santolík O, Rodger CJ, Rycroft MJ, Hayosh M, Shklyar D, Demekhov A (2009a) Survey of magnetospheric line radiation events observed by the DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res 114:A05203. doi:10.1029/2008JA014016

    Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Raita T, Parrot M, Santolík O, Turunen T (2009b) Conjugate observations on board a satellite and on the ground of a remarkable MLR-like event. Geophys Res Lett 36:L22103. doi:10.1029/2009GL040974

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Parrot M, Santolík O (2010) Influence of power line harmonic radiation on the VLF wave activity in the upper ionosphere: is it capable to trigger new emissions? J Geophys Res 115:A11301. doi:10.1029/2010JA015718

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Parrot M, Santolík O (2012a) Detailed properties of magnetospheric line radiation events observed by the DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res 117:A05210. doi:10.1029/2012JA017517

    Google Scholar 

  • Němec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Pickett JS (2012b) Magnetospheric line radiation event observed simultaneously on board Cluster 1, Cluster 2 and DEMETER spacecraft. Geophys Res Lett 39:L18103. doi:10.1029/2012GL053132

    Google Scholar 

  • Nĕmec F, Santolík O, Parrot M, Pickett JS, Hayosh M, Cornilleau-Wehrlin N (2013) Conjugate observations of quasi-periodic emissions by Cluster and DEMETER spacecraft. J Geophys Res Space Phys 118:1–11. doi:10.1029/2012JA018380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn D, Manninen J, Turunen T, Trakhtengerts V, Erokhin N (1999) On the nonlinear triggering of VLF emissions by power line harmonic radiation. Ann Geophys 17:79–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Buzzi A, Santolík O, Berthelier JJ, Sauvaud JA, Lebreton JP (2006) New observations of electromagnetic harmonic ELF emissions in the ionosphere by the DEMETER satellite during large magnetic storms. J Geophys Res 111:A08301. doi:10.1029/2005JA011583

    Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Manninen J, Santolík O, Němec F, Turunen T, Raita T, Macúšová E (2007) Simultaneous observation on board a satellite and on the ground of large-scale magnetospheric line radiation. Geophys Res Lett 34:L19102. doi:10.1029/2007GL030630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Inan US, Lehtinen NG (2008a) V-shaped VLF streaks recorded on DEMETER above powerful thunderstorms. J Geophys Res 113:A10310. doi:10.1029/2008JA013336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Santolík O, Brochot JY, Berthelier J-J (2008b) Observation of intensified lower hybrid noise in the midlatitude ionosphere. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 36(4–1):1164–1165. doi:10.1109/TPS.2008.924492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Němec F, Santolík O (2014a) Statistical analysis of emissions triggered by power line harmonic radiation and observed by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER. J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:5744–5754. doi:10.1002/2014JA020139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrot M, Němec F, Santolík O (2014b) Analysis of fine ELF wave structures observed poleward from the ionospheric trough by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER. J Geophys Res Space Phys. doi:10.1002/2013JA019557

    Google Scholar 

  • Pfaff R, Liebrecht C, Berthelier JJ, Malingre M, Parrot M, Lebreton JP (2008) DEMETER satellite observations of plasma irregularities in the topside ionosphere at low, middle, and sub-auroral latitudes and their dependence on magnetic storms. In Kintner et al (eds) Midlatitude ionospheric dynamics and disturbances, vol 181. AGU Monograph, pp 297–310

  • Piddyachiy D, Inan US, Bell TF, Lehtinen NG, Parrot M (2008) DEMETER observations of an intense upgoing column of ELF/VLF radiation excited by the HAARP HF heater. J Geophys Res 113:A10308. doi:10.1029/2008JA013208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Píša D (2012) Etude des émissions électromagnétiques enregistrées par le satellite DEMETER. PhD thesis, University of Orléans, October 16, 2012

  • Rehman MU, Marchand M, Berthelier J-J, Onishi T, Burchill J (2013) Earth magnetic field effects on particle sensors on LEO satellites. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 41(12):3402–3409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodger CJ, Thomson NR, Dowden RL (1995) VLF line radiation observed by satellite. J Geophys Res 100(A4):5681–5689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodger CJ, Clilverd MA, Yearby KH, Smith AJ (1999) Magnetospheric line radiation observations at Halley, Antarctica. J Geophys Res 104(A8):17441–17447. doi:10.1029/1999JA900153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodger CJ, Clilverd MA, Yearby KH, Smith AJ (2000a) Temporal properties of magnetospheric line radiation. J Geophys Res 105(A1):329–336

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodger CJ, Clilverd MA, Yearby KH, Smith AJ (2000b) Is magnetospheric line radiation man made? J Geophys Res 105(A7):15981–15990. doi:10.1029/1999JA000413

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santolik O, Parrot M, Chum J (2008) Propagation spectrograms of whistler-mode radiation from lightning. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 36(4):1166–1167. doi:10.1109/TPS.2008.920899

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santolik O, Parrot M, Inan US, Buresova D, Gurnett DA, Chum J (2009) Propagation of unducted whistlers from their source lightning: a case study. J Geophys Res 114:A03212. doi:10.1029/2008JA013776

    Google Scholar 

  • Sauvaud JA, Maggiolo R, Jacquey C, Parrot M, Berthelier JJ, Gamble RJ, Rodger CJ (2008) Radiation belt electron precipitation due to VLF transmitters: satellite observations. Geophys Res Lett 35:L09101. doi:10.1029/2008GL033194

    Google Scholar 

  • Shen X, Zhang X, Wang L, Chen H, Wu Y, Yuan S, Shen J, Zhao S, Qian J, Ding J (2011) The earthquake-related disturbances in ionosphere and project of the first China seismo-electromagnetic satellite. Earthq Sci 24(6):639–650

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shklyar DR, Parrot M, Chum J, Santolik O, Titova EE (2010) On the origin of lower- and upper-frequency cutoffs on wedge-like spectrograms observed by DEMETER in the midlatitude ionosphere. J Geophys Res 115:A05203. doi:10.1029/2009JA014672

    Google Scholar 

  • Sotnikov VI, Fiala V, Lefeuvre F, Lagoutte D, Mogilevsky M (1991) Excitation of sidebands due to nonlinear coupling between a VLF transmitter signal and a natural ELF emission. J Geophys Res 96(A7):11363–11369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tanaka Y, Lagoutte D, Hayakawa M, Lefeuvre F, Tajima S (1987) Spectral broadening of VLF transmitter signals and sideband structure observed on Aureol 3 satellite at middle latitudes. J Geophys Res 92(A7):7551–7559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Titova EE, Di VI, Yurov VE, Raspopov OM, Trakhtengertz VYu, Jiricek F, Triska P (1984) Interaction between VLF waves and the turbulent ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett 11(4):323–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toledo-Redondo S, Parrot M, Salinas A (2012) Variation of the first cut-off frequency of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide observed by DEMETER. J Geophys Res 117:A04321. doi:10.1029/2011JA017400

    Google Scholar 

  • Yizengaw E, Retterer J, Pacheco EE, Roddy P, Groves K, Caton R, Baki P (2013) Postmidnight bubbles and scintillations in the quiet-time June solstice. Geophys Res Lett 40:5592–5597. doi:10.1002/2013GL058307

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

DEMETER was a CNES mission. We thank the engineers from CNES and scientific laboratories (CBK, IRAP, LPC2E, LPP, SSD of ESTEC) who largely contributed to the success of this mission. Thanks are also due to many students who carefully scrutinized the DEMETER data during their summer jobs. OS and DP acknowledge funding from projects M100421206, GACR14-31899S, and LH12231. FN was supported by GACR Grant P209/12/P658. The work of TO was supported through the IODISSEE ANR grant.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Parrot.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Parrot, M., Berthelier, J.J., Blecki, J. et al. Unexpected Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Events Recorded by the Ionospheric Satellite DEMETER. Surv Geophys 36, 483–511 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-015-9315-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-015-9315-5

Keywords

Navigation