Inferring boundaries among fish species of the new world silversides (Atherinopsidae; genus Odontesthes): new evidences of incipient speciation between marine and brackish populations of Odontesthes argentinensis
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Species of new world silversides (Actinopterygii; Atherinopsidae; genus Odontesthes) possess economic relevance, biological interest and ecological importance. In the present paper we: (A) investigate the molecular diversity in marine species of Odontesthes from the South West Atlantic Ocean (SWAO), and analyse their interspecific relationships and divergence by means of DNA Barcoding, including its freshwater congeners, as well. (B) Explore the suitability of DNA Barcoding to analyse the diversity and distribution of haplotypes in Odontesthes argentinensis, the only well documented marine species from the SWAO that exhibit putative estuarine and marine populations. Molecular analysis revealed 100% of agreement between morphological identification and molecular identity. Odontesthes argentinensis, Odontesthes platensis, Odontesthes smitti, Odontesthes nigricans and Odontesthes incisa were assigned to five different barcode index numbers (BINs). Maximum-likelihood analysis showed that all marine species of Odontesthes clustered separately in a unique monophyletic phylogroup, comprising five well defined haplogroups, with genetic divergence between groups ranging from 2.75 to 7.11%. The genetic analysis including freshwater congeners showed that O. incisa clustered alone occupying a basal position. The Fst pairwise comparisons within O. argentinensis support the existence of three population groups: one conformed by Mar Chiquita Lagoon (MCh) specimens, and the others by Mar del Plata/Mar Chiquita coast and San Blas Bay coastal specimens, respectively. The AMOVA showed significant overall differentiation (Fst = 0.238; p = 0.00001) for the entire data set. The previous/present evidence is discussed, and strongly suggests that incipient speciation is occurring in O. argentinensis argentinean populations, and specimens from MCh would be considered at present as the leading candidate of a marine to freshwater incipient speciation event.
KeywordsFishes Incipient speciation Taxonomy Barcoding Haplotype network Odontesthes argentinensis Population divergence
This work was supported by CONICET (PIP No. 11220130100339), MINCYT (PICT-2014-0665) and also personal funds of MGC. The authors would like to thank: Julio Mangiarotti (forest guard of Mar Chiquita Biosphere Reserve), Daniel Giménez (silversides sport-game fishing expert); Pablo Rizzo, Cristian Di Paolo and Marcelo Pons (sport game fishing guides of Mar Chiquita); Daniel Blanco, Santiago Gaudioso and Juan Pablo Gaudioso (San Gabriel and Juan y Juan fishing-points of Mar Chiquita); Carlos Martin (fisherman of Mar del Plata); Mónica Iza and Florencia Celesia (Mar Chiquita Town Hall) and Mar Chiquita Town Hall authorities (Flavia Laguné and Carlos Alberto Ronda).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Not aplicable. No studies with human participants were performed by any of the authors.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Statement on the welfare of animals
Fish under study are not protected (local restrictions, IUCN or CITES listed species) under wildlife conservation. No experimentation was conducted on live specimens in this study, as in fact they were no longer alive when were obtained from sport (Mar Chiquita Coastal lagoon, Mar Chiquita coast and San Blas Bay) and artisanal fishermen (Mar del Plata coast, Comodoro Rivadavia coast) upon landing. The locations involved in the study were not part of any protected area, except for Mar Chiquita Coastal lagoon; however, as stated above, fishes obtained in this lagoon came from sport game fishermen.
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