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Differential chromosomal organization between Saguinus midas and Saguinus bicolor with accumulation of differences the repetitive sequence DNA

Abstract

Saguinus is the largest and most complex genus of the subfamily Callitrichinae, with 23 species distributed from the south of Central America to the north of South America with Saguinus midas having the largest geographical distribution while Saguinus bicolor has a very restricted one, affected by the population expansion in the state of Amazonas. Considering the phylogenetic proximity of the two species along with evidence on the existence of hybrids between them, as well as cytogenetic studies on Saguinus describing a conserved karyotypic macrostructure, we carried out a physical mapping of DNA repeated sequences in the mitotic chromosome of both species, since these sequences are less susceptible to evolutionary pressure and possibly perform an important function in speciation. Both species presented 2n = 46 chromosomes; in S. midas, chromosome Y is the smallest. Multiple ribosomal sites occur in both species, but chromosome pairs three and four may be regarded as markers that differ the species when subjected to G banding and distribution of retroelement LINE 1, suggesting that it may be cytogenetic marker in which it can contribute to identification of first generation hybrids in contact zone. Saguinus bicolor also presented differences in the LINE 1 distribution pattern for sexual chromosome X in individuals from different urban fragments, probably due to geographical isolation. In this context, cytogenetic analyses reveal a differential genomic organization pattern between species S. midas and S. bicolor, in addition to indicating that individuals from different urban fragments have been accumulating differences because of the isolation between them.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Rede BioPHAM (CNPq/FAPEAM Grant No. 563348/2010-0); Pro-Amazon program on Biodiversity and Sustainability research (Proposal No. 047/2012); CAPES (Process 23038.009447/2013-45, Grant No. 3295/2013), FAPEAM (PAPAC 020/2013 and FIXAM 17/2014) and CNPq (process 482996/2011-0 and 476292/2013-1). CHS and DMBS received funding from CAPES and FAPEAM.

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Correspondence to Carlos Henrique Schneider.

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Serfaty, D.M.B., Carvalho, N.D.M., Gross, M.C. et al. Differential chromosomal organization between Saguinus midas and Saguinus bicolor with accumulation of differences the repetitive sequence DNA. Genetica 145, 359–369 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-017-9971-0

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Keywords

  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization
  • Monkeys
  • Transposable elements
  • Callitrichinae