, Volume 140, Issue 4–6, pp 235–247 | Cite as

Genetic analysis of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations with different levels of sensitivity towards the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV)

  • Nadine A. Gund
  • Annette Wagner
  • Alicia E. Timm
  • Stefanie Schulze-Bopp
  • Johannes A. Jehle
  • Jes Johannesen
  • Annette ReinekeEmail author


Microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA markers were used to assess the structure of European codling moth populations showing different levels of susceptibility towards one of the most important biocontrol agents used in apple production, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus CpGV-M. In 638 C. pomonella individuals from 33 different populations a total of 92 different alleles were scored using six SSR loci. The global estimate of genetic differentiation for all 33 populations was not significantly different from zero, thus indicating a lack of genetic differentiation. AMOVA analysis revealed a very weak but significant variance among C. pomonella populations from different geographic regions, however, no significant variation was evident between CpGV-M resistant or susceptible C. pomonella populations. Sequence analysis of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 in eight C. pomonella populations resulted in 27 haplotypes, which were grouped in two distinct clusters. Again, no genetic differentiation between CpGV-M resistant and susceptible codling moth populations was detectable. In addition, Structure analysis using microsatellites and association tests with mtDNA haplotypes found neither population-level nor individual correlations associated with CpGV-M resistance. Accordingly, this lack of population structure does not allow discriminating between one or several, separate origins of CpGV-M resistance.


Cydia pomonella Codling moth Baculovirus CpGV Microsatellites mtDNA Population genetics 



We thank Dustin Kulanek (Geisenheim) for help during SSR marker analysis and Eva Fritsch, Kathrin Undorf-Spahn (JKI Darmstadt) and Jutta Kienzle (Kernen) for providing codling moth samples. This work was supported by a grant of the Federal Organic Farming Scheme (05OE023/1) by the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE) of Germany to the groups in Geisenheim, Neustadt and Darmstadt and by a grant of the “Stiftung Rheinland-Pfalz für Innovation” (grant 0861) to Jes Johannesen.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 352 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine A. Gund
    • 1
  • Annette Wagner
    • 2
  • Alicia E. Timm
    • 1
  • Stefanie Schulze-Bopp
    • 3
  • Johannes A. Jehle
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jes Johannesen
    • 2
  • Annette Reineke
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhytomedicineGeisenheim Research CenterGeisenheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Zoological InstituteUniversity of MainzMainzGermany
  3. 3.Laboratory of Biotechnological Crop Protection, Department of PhytopathologyAgricultural Service Center Palatinate (DLR Rheinpfalz)Neustadt an der WeinstrasseGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Biological ControlFederal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (Julius Kühn-Institut)DarmstadtGermany

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