, Volume 138, Issue 2, pp 169–177 | Cite as

Elucidating genetic relationships, diversity and population structure among the Turkish female figs

  • Hatice Ikten
  • Nedim Mutlu
  • Osman GulsenEmail author
  • Hilmi Kocatas
  • Uygun Aksoy


A collection of 96 female Turkish fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions was studied to elucidate genetic structure and estimate diversity and genetic similarity distribution among the female figs present in Turkish genetic resources, using 157 molecular genome markers including 129 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms, 21 random amplified polymorphic DNAs, and 7 simple-sequence repeats. The plant samples mainly included Turkish fig collections selected throughout the country over the course of a half-century. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed continuous dissimilarity range, and it was difficult to classify figs into distinct groups. The principle component analysis produced similar results. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 95 and 93% of genetic variation were explained by within geographic origins and similar fruit rind color, respectively. Sub-structuring Bayesian analysis assigned the 96 female figs into four sub-populations, and indicated that they were highly related. The corrected allelic pairwise distances among the six geographic origins were less than 5%. This study suggests that geography- and color-based groups were not genetically distinct among the Turkish figs.


Ficus carica SRAP Neighbor-joining PCA AMOVA Population structure 



This research was supported by a grant from The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, TUBITAK, (TOVAG-105O056). We are very grateful to Dr. Moshe A. Flaishman, the Volcani Center, Israel for providing part of research materials.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hatice Ikten
    • 1
  • Nedim Mutlu
    • 2
  • Osman Gulsen
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hilmi Kocatas
    • 4
  • Uygun Aksoy
    • 5
  1. 1.West Mediterranean Research InstituteMinistry of Agriculture and Rural AffairsAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.George W. Beadle Center, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of NebraskaLincolnUSA
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  4. 4.The Fig Research InstituteAydinTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureAegean UniversityIzmirTurkey

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