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Diversification of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fish (Crenuchidae, Characiformes)

Abstract

Karyotype and other chromosomal markers of Characidium cf. gomesi were analyzed using conventional (Giemsa-staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding) and molecular (Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S and 5S rDNA biotinylated probes) techniques. Both sexes had invariably diploid chromosome number 2n = 50 while karyotypes of males and females differed. That of male consisted of 32 metacentric + 18 submetacentric chromosomes and that of female consisted 31 metacentric + 18 submetacentric + 1 subtelocentric chromosomes. The Z chromosome was medium-sized metacentric, while W was highly heterochromatinized subtelocentric element. NORs as revealed by Ag-staining were situated at 2–7 telomeric regions while FISH with 18S probes showed consistently 10 signals at telomeric regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe showed constantly signals at one metacentric pair. Distribution of centromeric heterochromatin was mostly in all chromosome pairs, besides some telomeric sites. The common origin of the sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type in the karyotypes of other representatives of the genus analyzed so far might be hypothesized based on biogeography and partial phylogeny of the group.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the IAP (Instituto Ambiental do Paraná) and IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente) for authorizing the specimens captures (IBAMA/MMA No. 02017.000686/00-21). This work was supported by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo––proc. no. 03/13019-0), CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) and Fundação Araucária (Fundação Araucária de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico do Estado do Paraná). We also thank Dr. Paulo A. Buckup for the assistance in the taxonomy of the specimens and Miguel Airton Carvalho for collaboration in field and laboratory activities.

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Correspondence to Marcelo Ricardo Vicari.

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Vicari, M.R., Artoni, R.F., Moreira-Filho, O. et al. Diversification of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Characidium fish (Crenuchidae, Characiformes). Genetica 134, 311–317 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-007-9238-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-007-9238-2

Keywords

  • Chromosome banding
  • Karyotype differentiation
  • Cytotaxonomy of Characidium
  • Ribosomal genes
  • FISH