, 131:29 | Cite as

Karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of Ag–NOR sites and 5S rDNA in European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus

  • K. Ocalewicz
  • P. Hliwa
  • J. Krol
  • M. Rábová
  • R. Stabinski
  • P. Ráb
Original Paper


Karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of European smelt Osmerus eperlanus were investigated using different staining techniques (sequential Ag-, CMA3 and DAPI banding) and PRINS to detect 5S rDNA and telomeric sites. The diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 56 and karyotype composed of 5 pairs of metacentrics, 9 pairs of subtelocentrics and 14 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentrics. The DAPI-positive heterochromatic regions were found in centromeric positions on bi-armed chromosomes and few acrocentrics. Additionally, some interstitial DAPI-positive bands were identified on three pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were detected in the short (p) arms of the largest metacentric pair of chromosomes No. 1. Sequential banding (Giemsa-, AgNO3 and CMA3 stainings) revealed NOR sites corresponding to achromatic regions but not associated with CMA3-positive blocks of heterochromatin located on either side of NORs. Individuals from the analyzed population had this conspicuous pair of chromosomes always in heterozygous combination. A complex inversion system was hypothesized to be involved in the origin of the observed variation but analysis with telomeric PRINS and PNA-FISH did not reveal any Interstitial Telomeric Sites (ITS). Hybridization signals were confined exclusively to terminal chromosomal regions. The 5S ribosomal sites as revealed by PRINS were found to be invariably located in the short (p) arms of four pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Cytotaxonomic comparisons of the present results with the voluminous available cytogenetic data-set from salmoniform and esociformes fishes appear to support the recent view, based on robust molecular-based phylogeny, that salmoniform and osmeriform fishes are not as closely related as previously assumed.


Chromosome banding Cytotaxonomy of smelt Fish cytogenetics NOR phenotype PRINS 



We thank Agnieszka Sliwinska (Department of Ichthyology, UWM in Olsztyn) for technical assistance. David Penman (University of Stirling, UK) is thanked for suggestions on the manuscript. This work was supported by the project No. 0804.205 from UWM in Olsztyn, Poland. K. Ocalewicz was supported by a grant from The Foundation for Polish Science and a “Pro Scientia et Vita” Scholarship funded by The Polish Academy of Science. M. Rábová and P. Ráb were supported by project IAA 6045405 by GA CAS in the frame of IRP IAPG AV0Z 50450515. This activity is also supported Biodiversity Research Centre LC06073.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Ocalewicz
    • 1
  • P. Hliwa
    • 1
  • J. Krol
    • 1
  • M. Rábová
    • 2
  • R. Stabinski
    • 3
  • P. Ráb
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of IchthyologyUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztyn-KortowoPoland
  2. 2.Laboratory of Fish Genetics, Institute of Animal Physiology and GeneticsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicLiběchovCzech Republic
  3. 3.Fisheries Station of the Polish Angling AssociationSuwalkiPoland
  4. 4.Joint Laboratory of Genetics, Physiology and Reproduction of Fishes of Institute of Animal Physiology and GeneticsAcademy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Liběchov, and Research Institute of Fishery and Hydrobiology, University of South BohemiaVodňanyCzech Republic

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