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Land-use/land cover change and land surface temperature in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines using landsat imagery


Remote sensing technology has been widely used to address the issue of urbanization for monitoring. In Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, there is a decline in vegetation over the last decade. This leads to the excess heat in the surface temperature and a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island. In this study, the land surface temperature (LST), land-use/land cover changes (LULC), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) in 2001 and 2019 were retrieved using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM +). Our results showed the following: (i) an increase in the mean temperature of 4.02 °C from 2001 to 2019 in MM, (ii) rise in NDBI and a decline in NDVI values is correlated with an increase in LST over the last years in MM; (iii) LULC maps affirmed the highest occupancy of built-up areas caused by possible urban sprawl explaining the increase in warming in MM. This study provides added evidence that urbanization activities in Metro Manila leads to a warming effect that drives discomfort to many average Filipinos. Hence, environmental policies that would implement proper urban design utilizing more green spaces is recommended for local government units in MM to support.

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KJA-R would like to thank the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for the In-Country/In-Region Scholarship Programme provided. NHAD was supported by the Research Center for Natural and Applied Sciences of University of Santo Tomas and by the DOST-PCAARRD Balik Scientist Grant.

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Correspondence to King Joshua Almadrones-Reyes.

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We would like to declare that this research study has no conflict of interest and does not involve human and animal participants that needs ethical concerns or informed consents.

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Almadrones-Reyes, K.J., Dagamac, N.H.A. Land-use/land cover change and land surface temperature in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines using landsat imagery. GeoJournal (2022).

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  • Environmental management
  • Impervious surface
  • Landsat
  • SDG 11
  • Urban ecology