GeoJournal

pp 1–14 | Cite as

Climate change stressors in the Sahel

  • Terence Epule Epule
  • James D. Ford
  • Shuaib Lwasa
Article

Abstract

The Sahel is prone to climate stressors such as droughts, winds and floods. This study employs a systematic review approach to track the frequency with which these stressors are reported in the scientific peer reviewed literature, examining publishing trends to identify which stressors are most reported, documenting the spatial distribution of these stressors from a country and regional perspective, and assessing the role played by climatic and non-climatic drivers in causing the stressors. A total of (n = 388) reports of stressors were documented in (n = 164) peer reviewed articles. From a country perspective, Southern Niger records the highest number of reports on all three stressors (15.97%), followed by Ethiopia (11.85%) and Senegal (10.56%). Regionally, West African Sahel recorded the highest number of reports on all stressors (49.97%) followed by East African Sahel (29.89%) and Central African Sahel (12.11%) respectively. Droughts are observed to be the most frequently reported stressor (n = 219), followed by floods (n = 123) and winds (n = 46). The decade 1975–1985 recorded the highest reports of stressors (n = 207), while the decade 1997–2007 recorded (n = 80) and the decade 1986–1996 recorded (n = 52). While climatic drivers are dominant (52%), there is however an increasing attribution of the drivers of the stressors to non-climatic drivers (47%). The main weakness of this study is that it uses peer reviewed papers dwelling on climate stressors as a proxy for climate stressors in the Sahel and a lot more studies could be hiding in non-peer reviewed studies, underscoring that this work provides a general and baseline overview of the climate stressors in the region.

Keywords

Stressors Droughts Floods Winds Climatic Non-climatic Regional Country-level Sahel 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a grant from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Grant Number 756-2016-0003.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10708_2017_9831_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 46 kb)
10708_2017_9831_MOESM2_ESM.docx (69 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 69 kb)

References

  1. Adefolalu, D. O. (1986). Further aspects of Sahelian drought as evident from rainfall regime of Nigeria. Archives for Meteorology, Geophysics, and Bioclimatology, 36, 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. African Climate Change Fund. (2016). Supporting African countries to access international climate finance: Enabling a transition towards climate resilient, low-carbon development. The African Development Bank. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Africa_Climate_Change_Fund_-_Supporting_Africa_countries_to_access_international_climate_finance.pdf.
  3. Agnew, C. T., & Chappell, A. (1999). Drought in the Sahel. GeoJournal, 48, 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnew, C. T., & Warren, A. (1996). A framework for tackling drought and land degradation. Journal of Arid Environments, 33, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albergel, J. (1987). Sécheresse, désertification et ressources en eau de surface-Application aux petits bassins du Burkina Faso. In The influence of climate change and climatic variability on the hydrologic regime and water resources (Proceedings of the vancouver symposium, August 1987). IAHS Publ. no. 168. http://iahs.info/redbooks/A168/iahs_168_0355.pdf.
  6. Alpert, P., & Ganor, E. (1993). A jet stream associated heavy dust storm in the western Mediterranean. Journal Geophysical Research, 98, 7339–7349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amogu, O., Descroix, L., Yero, K. S., Le Breton, E., Mamdou, I., Ali, A., et al. (2010). Increasing river flows in the Sahel? Water, 2, 170–199. https://doi.org/10.3390/w2020170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anuforom, A. (2007). Spatial distribution and temporal variability of Harmattan dust haze in sub-Sahel West Africa. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 9079–9090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anyamba, A., & Eastman, J. (1996). Inter-annual variability of NDVI over Africa and its relation to El Niño/Southern Oscillation. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 2533–2548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anyamba, A., & Tucker, C. J. (2005). Analysis of Sahelian Vegetation dynamics using NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data from 1981–2003. Journal of Arid Environments, 63, 595–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Araos, M., Austin, S. E., Berrang-Ford, L., & Ford, J. (2015). Public health adaptation to climate change in large cities: A global baseline. International Journal of Health Services. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731415621458.Google Scholar
  12. Araos, M., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J., Austin, S., Biesbroek, R., & Lesnikowski, A. (2016). Climate change adaptation in large cities: A systematic global assessment. Environmental Science and Policy, 66, 375–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Austin, S. E., Ford, J. D., Berrang-Ford, L., Araos, M., Parker, S., & Fleury, M. D. (2015). Public health adaptation to climate change in Canadian jurisdictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(691), 623–651. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120100623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J. D., Lesnikowski, A., Poutianinen, C., Barrera, M., & Heymann, S. J. (2014). What drives national adaptation? A global assessment. Climate Change. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1078-3.Google Scholar
  15. Berrang-Ford, L., Pearce, T., & Ford, J. D. (2015). Systematic review approaches for global environmental change research. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 755–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Billi, P., Alemu, Y. T., & Ciampalini, R. (2015). Increased frequency of flash floods in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia: Change in rainfall intensity or human impact? Natural Hazards, 76, 1373–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Birkett, C., Mutugudde, R., & Allan, T. (1999). Indian Ocean climate event brings floods to East Africa’s lakes and Sudd Marsh. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(8), 1031–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyd, E., Cornforth, R. L., Lamb, P. J., Tarhule, A., Lele, M. A., & Brouder, A. (2013). Building resilience to face recurring environmental crisis in African Sahel. Nature Climate Change, 3, 631–637.Google Scholar
  19. Deressa, T., Hassan, R., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19, 248–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Derrick, J. (1977). The great west African drought, 1972–1974. African Affairs, 6(305), 539–586.Google Scholar
  21. Dixon, R., Smith, J., & Guill, S. (2010). Life on the edge: Vulnerability and adaptation of African ecosystems to global climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 8, 93–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drees, L. R., Manu, A., & Wilding, L. P. (1993). Characteristics of Aeolian dust in the Niger, West Africa. Geoderma, 59, 213–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eklundh, L., & Olsson, L. (2003). Vegetation index trends for the African Sahel 1982–1999. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(8), 1430. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Epule, T. E., Ford, J. D., & Lwasa, S. (2017a). Projections of maize yield vulnerability to droughts and adaptation options in Uganda. Land Use Policy, 65, 154–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/landusepol.2017.04.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Epule, T. E., Ford, J. D., Lwasa, S., & Lepage, L. (2017b). Vulnerability of maize yields to droughts in Uganda. Water, 29, 181. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Epule, T. E., Peng, C., & Lepage, L. (2015). Environmental refugees in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of perspectives on trends, causes, challenges and way forward. GeoJournal, 80, 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Epule, T. E., Peng, C., Lepage, L., & Chen, Z. (2014a). The causes, effects and challenges of Sahelian droughts: A critical review. Regional Environmental Change, 14, 145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Epule, T. E., Peng, C., Lepage, L., & Chen, Z. (2014b). Policy options towards deforestation reduction in Cameroon: An analysis based on a systematic approach. Land Use Policy, 36, 405–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Faure, H., & Gac, J. Y. (1985). Will the Sahel drought end in 1985? Nature, 291, 475–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fernandez, A., Najafi, M., Durand, M., Mark, B. G., Moritz, M., Jung, H. C., et al. (2016). Testing the skill of numerical hydraulic modeling to simulate spatiotemporal flooding patterns in the Logone floodplain, Cameroon. Journal of Hydrology, 539, 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ford, J. D., Berrang-Ford, L., Bunce, A., McKay, C., Irwin, M., & Pearce, T. (2015). The status of climate change adaptation in Africa and Asia. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 801–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ford, J. D., Berrang-Ford, L., & Patterson, J. (2011). A systematic review of observed climate change adaptation in developed nations. Climate Change Letters, 106, 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ford, J. D., McDowell, G., & Jones, J. (2014). The state of climate change adaptation in the Arctic. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 104005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/104005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ford, J. D., & Pearce, T. (2010). What we know, don’t know, and need to know about climate change vulnerability in the western Canadian Arctic. Environmental Research Letters. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-7659326/5/1/014008.Google Scholar
  35. Giannini, A., Biasutti, M., Held, I. M., & Sobel, A. H. (2008). A global perspective on African climate. Climatic Change, 90, 359–383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9396-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giannini, A., Saravanan, R., & Chang, P. (2003). Oceanic forcing of Sahel Rainfall on interannual to interdecadal timescales. Science, 302, 1027–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giannini, A., Saravanan, R., & Chang, P. (2005). Dynamics of the boreal summer African monsoon in the NSIPP1 atmospheric model. Climate Dynamics, 25, 517–535. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-005-0056-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hastenrath, S., Polzin, D., & Mutai, C. (2009). Diagnosing the droughts and floods in Equatorial East Africa during Boreal Autumn 2005–08. American Meteorological Society. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009jcli3094.1.Google Scholar
  39. Hiernaux, P., Diarra, L., Trichon, V., Mougin, E., Soumaguel, N., & Baup, F. (2009). Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate change from 1984 to 2006 in Sahel (Gourma, Mali). Journal of Hydrology, 375, 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hitchcock, R., & Hussein, H. (1987). Agricultural and non-agricultural settlements for drought-affected pastoralists in Somalia. Disasters, 11(1), 30–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huho, J. M., Ngaira, J. K. W., & Ogindo, H. (2011). Living with drought: The case of the Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya. Educational Research, 2(1), 779–789.Google Scholar
  42. IPCC. (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptations and vulnerability. In Contributions of the working group 2 to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC (p. 976). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. IPCC. (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. In Contributions of the working group 1 to the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (p. 979). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. IRIN. (2017). Backgrounder on the Sahel, West Africa’s poorest region. http://www.irinnews.org/feature/2008/06/02.
  45. Jankowiak, I., & Tanre, D. (1992). Satellite climatology of Saharan dust outbreaks: Method and preliminary results. Journal of Climate, 5, 646–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaly, F., Marticorena, B., Rajot, J. L., Janicot, S., Niang, A., Yahi, A., et al. (2015). Variability of mineral dust concentrations over West Africa monitored by the Sahelian Dust Transect. Atmospheric Research, 164(165), 226–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karam, D. B., Flamant, C., Knippertz, P., Reitebuch, O., Pelon, J., Chong, M., et al. (2008). Dust emissions over the Sahel associated with West African monsoon intertropical discontinuity region: A representative case study. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 134, 621–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keller, E. (1992). Drought, war and the politics of famine in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 30(4), 609–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Labbe, J., Ford, J. D., Araos, M., & Flynn, M. (2017). The government-led climate change adaptation landscape in Nunavut, Canada. Environmental Reviews, 25, 12–25. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2016-0032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Le Houerou, H. N. (1996). Climate change, drought and desertification. Journal of Arid Environments, 34, 133–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lesnikowski, A. C., Ford, J. D., Berrang-Ford, L., Barrera, M., Berry, P., Henderson, J., et al. (2013). National-level factors affecting planned, public adaptation to health impacts of climate change. Global Environmental Change, 23, 1153–1163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lopez-I-Gelats, F., Fraser, E. D. G., Morton, J. F., & Rivera-Ferre, M. G. (2016). What drives the vulnerability of pastoralist to global environmental change? A qualitative meta-analysis. Global Environmental Change, 39, 258–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lu, J., & Delworth, T. L. (2005). Oceanic forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L22706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lwasa, S. (2015). A systematic review of research on climate change adaptation policy and practice in Africa and South Asia deltas. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 815–825. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0715-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mahé, G., Lienou, G., Bamba, F., Paturel, J. E., Adeaga, O., Descroix, L., et al. (2011). Niger River and climate change over 100 years. In S. W. Franks, E. Boegh, E. Blyth, D. M. Hannah (Eds.), Hydro-climatology: Variability and change. Wallingford: IAHS Press.Google Scholar
  56. Mamadou, I., Gautier, E., Descroix, L., Noma, I., Moussa, I. B., Maiga, O. F., et al. (2015). Exorheism growth as an explanation of increasing flooding in the Sahel. CATENA, 131, 130–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maranz, S. (2009). Tree mortality in the African Sahel indicates an anthropogenic ecosystem displaced by climate change. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 1181–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McLeman, R. (2011). Settlement abandonment in the context of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 21, 108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McLeman, R. A., Dupre, J., Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J., Gajewski, K., & Marchildon, G. R. (2014). What we learned from the Dust Bowl: Lessons in science, policy, and adaptation. Population and Environment, 35, 417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., & Diouf, A. (2009). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. Environmental Management, 43, 804–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moreno, T., Querol, X., Castillo, S., Alastuey, A., Cuevas, E., Hermann, L., et al. (2006). Geochemical variations in Aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel dust corridor. Chemosphere, 65, 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mulitza, S., Heslop, D., Pittauerova, D., Fischer, H., Meyer, I., Stuut, J. B., et al. (2010). Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Nature Letters, 466, 226–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Muller, R., Pistorius, T., Rohde, S., Gerold, G., & Pacheco, P. (2013). Policy options to reduce deforestation based on a systematic approach of drivers and agents in lowland Bolivia. Land Use Policy, 30, 895–907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.06.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nicholson, S. E. (1981). Rainfall and atmospheric circulation during drought periods and wetter years in West Africa. American Meteorological Society, 109, 2191–2208.Google Scholar
  65. Nicholson, S. E. (1983). Sub-Saharan rainfall in the years 1976–1980: Evidence of continued drought. Monthly Weather Review, 111, 1646–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nicholson, S. E. (1985). Sub-Saharan rainfall 1981–84. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 24, 1388–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nicholson, S. E. (1995). Sahel, West Africa. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology, 3, 261–275.Google Scholar
  68. Nicholson, S. E. (2001). Climate and environmental change in Africa during the last two centuries. Climate Research, 17, 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nicholson, S. E. (2013). The west African Sahel A review of recent studies on the rainfall regime and its interannual variability. ISRN Meteorology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/453521.Google Scholar
  70. Nicholson, S. E. (2014). A detailed look at the recent drought situation in the Greater Horn of Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 103, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nicholson, S. E., Tucker, C. J., & Ba, M. B. (1998). Desertification, drought, and surface vegetation: An example from the West African Sahel. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(5), 815–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nielsen, J. Ø., D’Haen, S., & Reenberg, A. (2012). Adaptation to climate change as a development project: A case study from Northern Burkina Faso. Climate and Development, 4(1), 16–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nielsen, J. Ø., & Reenberg, A. (2010). Cultural barriers to climate change adaptation: A case study from Northern Burkina Faso. Global Environmental Change, 20(1), 142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.10.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nka, B. N., Oudin, L., Karambiri, H., Paturel, J. E., & Ribstein, P. (2015). Trends in floods in West Africa: Analysis based on 11 catchments in the region. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 4707–4719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Noble, I., & Huq, S. (2014). Adaptation needs and options. New York: Cambridge University Press. (chapter 14).Google Scholar
  76. O’Connor, D., & Ford, J. (2014). Increasing the effectiveness of the “Great Green Wall” as an adaptation to the effects of climate change and desertification in the Sahel. Sustainability, 6, 7142–7154. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ochola, S., Eitel, B., & Olago, D. (2010). Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya. Disaster, 34(3), 732–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ologunorisa, T., & Adeyemo, A. (2005). Public perception of floods hazard in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The Environmentalist, 25, 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ozer, P., Erpicum, M., Demaree, G., & Vandiepenbeeck, M. (2003). The Sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 48(3), 489–492. https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.48.3.489.45285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ozga-Zielinska, M. (1989). Droughts and floods-their definition and modeling. In Proceedings of the Baltimore symposium (Vol. 181). http://hydrologie.org/redbooks/a181/iahs_181_0313.pdf.
  81. Pierre, C., Kergoat, L., Bergametti, G., Mougin, E., Baron, C., Abdourhamane, A., et al. (2015). Modeling vegetation and wind erosion from a millet field and from a rangeland: Two Sahelian case studies. Aeolian, 19, 97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Prospero, J., & Nees, R. (1976). Dust concentration in the atmosphere of the equatorial north Atlantic: Possible relationship to the Sahelian drought. Science, 196, 1196–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reenberg, A. (1994). Land-use dynamics in the Sahelian zone in eastern Niger-monitoring change in cultivation strategies in drought prone areas. Journal of Arid Environments, 27, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reynolds, J. F., Stafford, S. D. M., Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Mortimore, M., Batterbury, S. P., et al. (2007). Global desertification: Building a science for dryland development. Science, 316, 847–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rung, J., & Nguimalet, C. R. (2005). Physiogeographic features of the Oubangui catchment and environmental trends reflected in discharge and floods at Bangui 1911–1999, Central African Republic. Geomorphology, 70, 311–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Samimi, C., Fink, A. H., & Paeth, H. (2012). The 2007 floods in the Sahel: Causes, characteristics and its presentation in the media and FEWS NET. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sinclair, A. R. E., & Fryxell, J. M. (1985). The Sahel of Africa: Ecology of a disaster. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 987–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sivakumar, M. V. K., & Wallace J. S. (1991). Soil water balance in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: Need, relevance and objectives of the workshop. In M. V. K. Sivakumar, J. S. Wallace, C. Renard, & C. Giroux (Eds.), Soil water balance in the Sudano-Sahelian zone (pp. 3–10). IAHS Publication 199, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  89. Tall, R., Mason, S. J., Van Aalst, M., Suarez, P., Ait-Chellouche, Y., Diallo, A. A., et al. (2012). Using seasonal climate forecast to guide disaster management: The Red Cross experience during the 2008 West African floods. International Journal of Geophysics. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/986016.Google Scholar
  90. Tarhule, A. (2005). Damaging rainfall and flooding: The other Sahel hazards. Climate Change, 72, 355–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tengberg, A. (1995). Nebkha dunes as indicators of wind erosion and land degradation in the Sahel zone of Burkina Faso. Journal of Arid Environments, 30, 265–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tschakert, P., Sagoe, R., Ofori-Darko, G., & Codjoe, S. N. (2010). Floods in the Sahel: An analysis of anomalies, memory, and anticipatory learning. Climate Change, 103, 471–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Turton, D., & Turton, P. (1984). Spontaneous resettlement after drought: An Ethiopian example. Disasters, 8(3), 178–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. United Nations (UN). (2015). Paris agreement. United Nations, New York. http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf.
  95. UNREDD+. (2015). Executive summary: 2015 annual report of the UN-REDD Programme Fund. http://www.unredd.net/documents.html?view=browse&customtags=172&startdate=&enddate=&dmlang=.
  96. Vanmaercke, M., Zenebe, A., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., Verstaeten, G., & Deckers, J. (2010). Sediments dynamics and the role of flash floods in sediment export from medium-sized catchments: A case study from the semi-arid tropical highlands in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Soil Sediments, 10, 611–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wang, B., Ding, Q., Fu, X., Jin, K., Shukla, J., & Doblas-Reyes, F. (2005). Fundamental challenge in simulation and prediction of summer monsoon rainfall. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 15711. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Priestley International Centre for ClimateUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.Department of GeographyMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda

Personalised recommendations