Modelling the effect of deprived physical urban environments on academic performance in the Philippines
- 194 Downloads
This study investigates how physical urban environments affect academic performance of urban public elementary schools in the Philippines by analysing the physical environment of school facilities and slum areas. Global, local, and semi-parametric regression analyses indicate that there is disproportionate provision of resources among the government schools and that lower academic performance is associated with the provision of fewer clinics rather than the proximity to poverty hotspots. Semiparametric, geographically weighted regression modelling outperformed global and local modelling, and estimated up to 30 % of the variation in math scores where the semi-parametric regression model is based on each school’s number of teachers and rooms, building conditions, availability of health clinics, and the location of slum areas near the school. On the basis of the research findings, it is concluded that the current state of school buildings is adequate and is a lower priority than the provision of health care support and smaller pupil–teacher ratios. Hence, government programs that aim to enhance the academic performance of children from the deprived physical urban environments should prioritize the provision of health clinics as well as maintaining few large schools with small pupil–teacher ratios.
KeywordsPhilippines Public elementary schools Educational facilities Physical urban environments Informal settlers GIS Semi-parametric geographically weighted regression
The authors would like to thank the School Mapping Unit of the Department of Education, Philippines as well as Dr. Wilmina Lara of Geodata Systems Technologies for allowing the use of their data. This research was supported by the Engineering Research and Development for Technology—Human Resource Development Program (ERDT-HRD) of the Department of Science and Technology, Philippines.
This study was funded by the Engineering Research and Development for Technology—Human Resource Development Program (ERDT-HRD) of the Department of Science and Technology, Philippines.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Ligaya Leah Figueroa has received research grants from the funding organization. Samsung Lim and Jihyun Lee has no relationship with the funding organization.
This paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Alba, M. (2010). Congestion in public elementary schools. Search of A human face: 15 Years of knowledge building for human development in the Philippines (pp. 238–247). Quezon City: Human Development Network.Google Scholar
- Alcazaren, P., Ferrer, L., Icamina, B., & Oshima, N. (2010). Lungsod iskwater: The evolution of informality as a dominant pattern in Philippine cities. Pasig City: Anvil.Google Scholar
- Alkire, S., Chatterjee, M., Conconi, A., Seth, S., & Vaz, A. (2014). Poverty in rural and urban areas: Direct comparisons using the global MPI 2014. OPHI Briefing, 24. Oxford University. Retrieved from https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/11802/Poverty-in-Rural.pdf?sequence=1.
- Altonji, J. G., & Blank, R. M. (1999). Race and gender in the labor market. In C. A. Orley & C. David (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (pp. 3143–3259). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Anselin, L. (1996). The Moran scatterplot as an ESDA tool to assess local instability in spatial association. In H. S. M. Fischer & D. Unwin (Eds.), Spatial analytical perspectives on GIS in environmental and socio-economic sciences (pp. 111–125). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
- Ballesteros, M. M. (2010). Linking poverty and the environment: evidence from slums in Philippine cities. PIDS Discussion Paper Series, 2010-33.Google Scholar
- Bartlett, S. (2011). Children in urban poverty: Can they get more than small change? Child Poverty Insights, UNICEF.Google Scholar
- Benzian, H. (2012). Keeping Children ‘Fit for School’: Simple, Scalable and Sustainable School Health in the Philippines. German Health Practice Collection. Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). Retreived from http://www.bmz.de/en///healthportal/ghpc/case-studies/Fit_for_school/FIT_EN_long.pdf.
- Cabalfin, E. (2014). The politics of nation in the urban form of informal settlements in Quezon City, Philippines. In N. Elleh (Ed.), Reading the architecture of the underprivileged classes (p. 153). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Caoili, M. A. (1999). The origins of Metropolitan Manila: A social and political analysis. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.Google Scholar
- Carunungan, C. (1982). Quezon City: A saga of progress. Quezon City: Cultural and Tourism Affairs Office.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D., et al. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Delisio, E. (2009). Lack of school nurses impacts students health, academics. Education World. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues/issues430.shtml.
- Duldulao, M. D. (1995). Quezon City. Manila: Japuzinni Publishing Division.Google Scholar
- Elias, M., & Rey, S. (2011). Educational performance and spatial convergence in Peru. Région et Développement, 33, 107–135.Google Scholar
- Gardner, P. W., Ritblatt, S. N., & Beatty, J. R. (1999). Academic achievement and parental school involvement as a function of high school size. The High School Journal, 83(2), 21–27.Google Scholar
- Ghuman, S., Behrman, J., & Gultiano, S. (2006). Children’s nutrition, school quality and primary school enrollment in the Philippines. In Paper presented at the Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, Los Angeles, USA, 30th March.Google Scholar
- Glewwe, P. W., Hanushek, E. A., Humpage, S. D., & Ravina, R. (2011). School resources and educational outcomes in developing countries: A review of the literature from 1990 to 2010. In P. W. Glewwe (Ed.), Education policy in developing countries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- HealthDev Institute. (2013). DepEd fails to keep students fit. www.Rappler.com.
- Herbert, D. T. (1972). Urban geography: A social perspective. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council. (2014). Developing a national informal settlements upgrading strategy for the Philippines (Appendix I: Comprehensive assessment report). Makati: HUDCC.Google Scholar
- Husén, T. (1990). Education and the global concern. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- James, W. L. (2009). Has the education and health relationship changed over time? A panel analysis of age, period, and cohort effects. PhD Thesis, Mississippi State University. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.630.7861&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
- Kitaev, I. (2007). Education for all and private education in developing and transitional countries. In Proceedings of private schooling in less economically developed countries. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
- Lagman, M. S. B. (2012). Informal settlements as spatial outcomes of everyday forms of resistance: The case of three depressed communities in Quezon city. Philippine Social Sciences Review, 64(12), 1–31. Retrieved from http://www.journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/pssr/article/viewFile/3481/3205.
- Lam, L. T. A. (2005). Human resource development and poverty in the Philippines. Makati: Philippine Institute for Development Studies.Google Scholar
- Lanzona, L. J. (2012). Geography, classrooms and policies: Inefficiencies of the internal government structure. HDN Discussion Paper Series, 6.Google Scholar
- Lu, D. (2010). Third world modernism: Architecture, development and identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ludwig, J., Ladd, H. F., Duncan, G. J., Kling, J., & O’Regan, K. M. (2001). Urban poverty and educational outcomes [with comments]. In Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs (ArticleType: research-article/Full publication date: 2001/Copyright © 2001 Brookings Institution Press), pp. 147–201.Google Scholar
- Lupton, R. (2004). Schools in disadvantaged areas: Recognising context and raising quality. Case Paper 76, Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London.Google Scholar
- Machin, S. (2006). Social disadvantage and education experiences. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 32.Google Scholar
- Monse, B., Benzian, H., Naliponguit, E., Belizario, V., Schratz, A., & van Palenstein Helderman, W. (2013). The Fit for School health outcome study-a longitudinal survey to assess health impacts of an integrated school health programme in the Philippines. BMC Public Health, 2013(13), 256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Monse, B., & Yanga-Mabunga, S. (2001). Urgent oral health needs of Filipino children: the results of the 2006 national oral health survey. Developing Dentistry, 8(1), 7–9.Google Scholar
- Monteiro, J., & Rocha, R. (2013). Drug battles and school achievement: Evidence from Rio de Janeiro’s favelas. CAF Working Paper, 2013/05, Caracas: CAF. Retrieved from http://scioteca.caf.com/handle/123456789/250.
- Naidoo, A. G. V., van Eeden, A., & Münch, Z. (2013). Spatial variation in school performance, a local analysis of socio-economic factors in Cape Town. South African Journal of Geomatics, 3(1), 78–94.Google Scholar
- Nakaya, T. (2014). GWR 4 User Manual.Google Scholar
- Nakaya, T., Fotheringham, A., Charlton, M., & Brunsdon, C. (2009). Semiparametric geographically weighted generalised linear modelling in GWR 4.0. In Proceedings of 10th international conference on GeoComputation.Google Scholar
- Perloff, H. S. (2015). The quality of the urban environment: Essays on “new resources” in an urban age. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Raffo, C. (2013). Educational area based initiatives: issues of redistribution and recognition. In D. Manley, M. van Ham, N. Bailey, L. Simpson, & D. Maclennan (Eds.), Neighbourhood effects or neighbourhood based problems?: A policy context. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
- Ragragio, J. M. (2003). Urban slums report: the case of Metro Manila, Philippines. In UN-Habitat (Ed) Understanding slums: Case studies for the global report on human settlements 2003. London: Development Planning Unit, University College London.Google Scholar
- Ratan, K., & Tania, C. (2007). Enrolling and retaining slum children in formal schools: A field survey in eastern slums of Kolkata. Economic and Political Weekly, 42(22), 2091–2098.Google Scholar
- Rothstein, R. (2013). Why children from lower socioeconomic classes, on average, have lower academic achievement than middle class children. In P. L. Carter, & K. G. Welner (Eds.), Closing the opportunity gap: What America must do to give every child an even chance (pp. 61–74). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Slate, J. R., & Jones, C. H. (2005). Effects of school size: A review of the literature with recommendations. Essays in Education, 13(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
- United Nations (1997). Glossary of Environment Statistics, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 67, United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
- Vorthmann, C. D. (2011). The relationship between school size and student achievement in Missouri. Ph.D. Thesis, Baker University.Google Scholar
- Webb-Prather, N. T. (2011). Before the bell rings: The effects of negative neighborhood characteristics on educational achievement in Ohio public schools. Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects. Paper 237.Google Scholar
- Weinberger, C. J. (2001). Is teaching more girls more math the key to higher wages? In M. King (Ed.), Squaring up: Policy strategies to raise women’s incomes in the US. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, D. T. (1990). The dimensions of education: Recent research on school size (Working paper series). Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs, Clemson, SC: Clemson University.Google Scholar
- Zimmermann, D. (2009). Interview: The oral health of Filipino children is in an alarming state.” Dental Tribune.Google Scholar