Peace Parks and jaguar trails: transboundary conservation in a globalizing world
- 610 Downloads
An increasingly utilized strategy for expanding conservation in the developing world has been the promotion of protected areas that supersede national borders. Alternatively known as transfrontier biosphere reserves, transfrontier or transboundary conservation areas, or Peace Parks, these protected areas are aggressively advanced by conservation agencies for their purported ecological and economic benefits. This article provides a comparative assessment of two case studies to understand the various impacts of transboundary conservation. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which unites protected areas in South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, is contrasted with efforts to protect jaguars along the United States–Mexico border. We argue that while these cases are promising for the purposes of biodiversity protection, they demonstrate that transboundary conservation can minimize political context, contributes to the hegemony of international conservation agendas, and remains closely linked to economic neoliberalism and decentralization in the developing world.
KeywordsConservation Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park Peace Park South Africa Transboundary conservation Transfrontier conservation U.S.–Mexico border
Research completed by the first author in South Africa was generously supported by the Institute for the study of World Politics, the Association of American Geographers, and the University of Texas Special Research Grant. The second author received research support from the Social Sciences Research Council, the University of Texas College of Liberal Arts U.S.-Mexico Borderlands Research Award, and the Robert E. Veselka Endowed Fellowship. We would like to thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article.
- Adams, W. M. (2001). Green development: Environment and sustainability in the Third World. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- African Wildlife Federation. (2002). Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park will double land for wildlife-including Kruger’s 10,000 elephants. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from http://www.awf.org/content/headline/detail/1163?print = true.
- Ali, S. H. (Ed.). (2007). Peace Parks: Conservation and conflict resolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Brown, D. E. (2000). Search for El Tigre. Defenders, 75(1). Retrieved June 30, 2007, from www.defenders.org/magazinenew/Spring2000/eltigre.pdf.
- Brown, D. E., & Gonzalez, C. L. (2001). Borderland jaguars. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
- Carruthers, J. (1995). The Kruger National Park: A social and political history. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
- Chapin, M. (2004). A challenge to conservationists. World Watch, (November/December), pp. 17–31.Google Scholar
- Childs, J. L. (1998). Tracking the felids of the borderlands. El Paso, TX: Printing Corner Press.Google Scholar
- Glenn, W. (1996). Eyes of fire: Encounter with a borderlands jaguar. El Paso, TX: Printing Corner Press.Google Scholar
- Godwin, P. (2001). Without borders. National Geographic, September.Google Scholar
- Graham, W. (2001). Birth of long-awaited Peace Park begins. Pretoria News, September 26Google Scholar
- Grigione, M. M., & Mrykalo, R. (2004). Effects of artificial night lighting on endangered ocelots (Leopardus paradalis) and nocturnal prey along the United States–Mexico border: A literature review and hypotheses of potential impacts. Urban Ecosystems, 7(1), 65–77. doi: 10.1023/B:UECO.0000020173.70355.ab.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Herring, H. (2002). How to make your own Yellowstone, Mexican style: A corporate behemoth races to restore a Coahuilan gem. High Country News, November 11.Google Scholar
- Honey, M. (1999). Ecotourism and sustainable development: Who owns paradise?. Island Press: Washington DC.Google Scholar
- IUCN (World Conservation Union) and WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre). (1998). 1997 United Nations list of protected areas. IUCN Publications.Google Scholar
- IUCN (World Conservation Union) and WCMC (World Conservation Monitoring Centre). (2006). World Commission on Protected Areas: World Database on Protected Areas, Updated March 1. Retrieved June 30, 2007 from http://www.unep-wcmc.org/wdpa.
- Kerasote, T. (2007). Borders without fences. The New York Times, February 24.Google Scholar
- Kruger Park Times. (2006). Heads of state put Giriyondo on the map, August 23.Google Scholar
- Magome, H., & Murombedzi, J. (2003). Sharing South African national parks: Community land and conservation in a democratic South Africa. In W. M. Adams & M. Mulligan (Eds.), Decolonizing nature: Strategies for conservation in a post-colonial era (pp. 108–134). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Maker, J. (2001). Miracle in Africa. Sunday Times, (September), p. 30.Google Scholar
- Miller, C. (2007). Interview with author. May 3, Douglas Arizona. Notes on file with author.Google Scholar
- Neumann, R. P. (1998). Imposing wilderness: Struggles over livelihood and nature preservation in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Rabinowitz, A. R. (1999). The present status of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southwestern United States. The Southwestern Naturalist, 44, 96–100.Google Scholar
- Ramutsindela, M. (2007). Transfrontier conservation in Africa: At the confluence of capital, politics and nature. Cambridge: CAB International.Google Scholar
- Rosas-Rosas, O. C. (2006). Ecological status and conservation of jaguars in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.Google Scholar
- Schroeder, R. A. (1999). Geographies of environmental intervention in Africa. Progress in Human Geography, 23(3), 359–378.Google Scholar
- Secure Fence Act. (2006). Public Law 109–367. October 26, 2006, Secure Fence Act, 8.U.S·C.1103. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname = 109_cong_bills&docid = f:h6061enr.txt.pdf.
- Sifford, B., & Chester, C. (2007). Bridging conservation across La Frontera: An unfinished agenda for Peace Parks along the U.S.–Mexico Divide. In S. H. Ali (Ed.), Peace Parks: Conservation and conflict resolution (pp. 205–226). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Soule, M. (1980). Thresholds for survival: Maintaining fitness and evolutionary potential. In M. Soule (Ed.), Conservation biology (pp. 151–179). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associated, Inc.Google Scholar
- Terborgh, J. (1999). Requiem for nature. Washington, DC: Island Press/Shearwater Books.Google Scholar
- Travers, R. (2001). World’s first trunk trek. Lowvelder. October 9.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (1996). Biosphere reserves, the Seville strategy and the statutory framework of the world network. Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO, Paris, France: 18 pp.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census. (2006). Press release: Louisiana loses population; Arizona Edges Nevada as fastest-growing state. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/007910.html.
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Southwest Region (2006). News release: Jaguar critical habitat deemed not prudent. Retrieved May 15, 2008, from www.fws.gov/southwest/es/Arizona/Documents/SpeciesDocs/Jaguar/NR_JaguarCH.pdf.
- van der Linde, H., Oglethorpe, J., Sandwith, T., Snelson, D., & Tessema, Y. (2001). Beyond boundaries: Transboundary natural resources management in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: Biodiversity Support Programme.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2004). Transfrontier conservation areas pilot and institutional strengthening project, Project P001759. Maputo: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Zbicz, D. C. (1999). The ‘nature’ of transboundary cooperation. Environment, 41(3), 15–17.Google Scholar
- Zerner, C. (Ed.). (2000). People, plants, and justice: The politics of nature conservation. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar