GeoJournal

, Volume 68, Issue 2–3, pp 267–278 | Cite as

From overt rejection to enthusiastic embracement: changing state discourses on Israeli emigration

Article

Abstract

This paper deploys a critical discourse analysis methodology to examine the emergence of three (sometimes overlapping) discourses on emigration in Israel. It examines the linkages between the various discursive phases and processes of (trans-) national identity formation among emigrants. It argues that emigration discourses have often been strong predictors of subsequent changes in state policies—and other programmatic initiatives—aimed at Israeli citizens abroad. By juxtaposing the discursive construction of emigration (and its linkages to nation-forming political strategies in Israel) and the effects they have had on emigrant identities the paper contributes to the emerging literature on state-diaspora relations and transnational politics.

Keywords

Emigration Israel Discourse Sending states Cultural diaspora 

References

  1. Almog, O. (2000). The Sabra: The creation of the new Jew. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alon, G. (2003). 760,000 Israelis have left the promised land. Ha’Aretz Online, November 19. Retrieved from: www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/362237.html.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, A. J. (2001). Turning transnational: Notes on the theorisation of international migration. International Journal of Population Geography, 7(6), 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartram, D. (2004). Labor migration policy and the governance of the construction industry in Israel and Japan. Politics and Society, 32(2), 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N., & Szanton Blanc, C. (1994). Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. New York: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  6. Biao, X. (2003). Emigration from China: A sending country perspective. International Migration, 41(3), 21–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blommaert, J., & Bulcaen, C. (2000). Critical discourse analysis. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 447–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castels, S. (2004). The factors that make and unmake migration policies. International Migration Review, 38(3), 852–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chock, P. S. (1995). Ambiguity in policy discourse: Congressional talk about immigration. Policy Sciences, 28(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, A. (1959). Research on the motives of emigration from Israel: A summary report. Jerusalem : Department of Sociology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, R. (1997). Global diasporas: An introduction. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, R. (1999). From ethnonational enclave to diasporic community: The mainstreaming of Israeli Jewish migrants in Toronto. Diaspora, 8(2), 121–136.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, R., & Gold, G. (1997). Constructing ethnicity: Myth of return and modes of exclusion among Israelis in Toronto. International Migration, 35(3), 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, Y., & Haberfeld, Y. (1997). The number of Israeli immigrants in the United States in 1990. Demography, 34(2), 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen , R., & Layton-Henry, Z. (Eds.) (1997). The politics of migration. Northampton, MA: Elgar.Google Scholar
  16. Della Pergola, S. (2005). Israel: The demographic and economic dimensions of migration. In P. Fargues (Ed.), Mediterranean migration: 2005 report (pp. 123–140). Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  17. Elitzur, D., & Elitzur, M. (1973). Israelis living abroad and their willingness to return. The Institute for Applied Social Research: Jerusalem. (In Hebrew).Google Scholar
  18. Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  19. Fein, A. (1983). Returnees in Israel’s 30th year of independence. Jerusalem: School of Social Work, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (In Hebrew).Google Scholar
  20. Fitzgerald, D. (2005). State and emigration: A state of emigration policy in Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies: University of California.Google Scholar
  21. Fitzgerald, D. (2006). Inside the sending state: The politics of Mexican emigration control. International Migration Review, 40(2), 259–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freeman, G. P. (1995). Migration policy and politics in the receiving states. International Migration Review, 26(4), 569–590.Google Scholar
  23. Geddes, A. P. (2003). The politics of migration and immigration in Europe. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Goel, Y. (1982). The numbers game. The Jerusalem Post Magazine, June 11, p. 8.Google Scholar
  25. Gold, S. J. (2002). The Israeli diaspora. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  26. Gold, S. J., & Philips, B. A. (1996). Israelis in the United States. American Jewish Year Book, 96, 51–101.Google Scholar
  27. Goldscheider, C. (2002). Israel’s changing society: Population, ethnicity, and development. Westview Press.Google Scholar
  28. Grasmuck, S., & Pessar, P. R. (1987). Between two islands: Dominican international migration. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Guttierez, C. G. (1999). Fostering identities: Mexico’s relations with its diaspora. The Journal of American History, 86(2), 545–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hacohen, D. (2003). Immigrants in turmoil: Mass immigration to Israel and its repercussions in the 1950s and after. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Har-Even, Y. (1989). Emigration as a social problem: Emigration from Israel as reflected in ‘letters to the editor’ of Ha’Aretz, 1949–1987. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  32. Heisler, B. S. (1985). Sending countries and the politics of emigration and destination. International Migration Review, 19(3), 469–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herman, P. (1988). Jewish–Israeli Migration to the United States since 1948. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Israel Studies (AIS), New York, June 7.Google Scholar
  34. Herman, P., & LaFontaine, D. (1983). In our footsteps: Israeli migration to the US and Los Angeles. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Hebrew Union College.Google Scholar
  35. Ilahi, N. (1999). Return migration and occupational change. Review of Development Economics, 3(2), 170–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Itzigsohn, J. (2000). Immigration and the boundaries of citizenship: The institutions of immigrants’ political transnationalism. International Migration Review, 34(4), 1126–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jacobs, D. (1998). Discourse, politics, and policy: The Dutch parliamentary debate about voting rights for foreign residents. International Migration Review, 32(2), 350–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kivisto, P. (2001). Theorising transnational immigration: A critical review of current efforts. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24, 549–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lahav, G., & Arian, A. (1999, February). Israelis in a Jewish diaspora: The multiple dilemmas of a globalized group. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  40. Lamdani, R. (1983). Emigration from Israel. Economic Quarterly, 116, 462–478.Google Scholar
  41. Levavy, L. (1977). Why do they leave? 240,000 Israelis are living abroad. The Jerusalem Post, January 18, 1977.Google Scholar
  42. Levitt, P. (2001). The transnational villagers. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  43. Levitt, P., & de la Dehesa, R. (2003). Transnational migration and the redefinition of the state: Variations and explanations. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26(4), 587–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lustick, I. (2004). Recent trends in emigration from Israel: The impact of Palestinian violence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Israel Studies (AIS), Jerusalem, June 14–16.Google Scholar
  45. Mahler, S. J. (2001). Transnational relationships: The struggle to communicate across borders. Identities, 7, 583–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin, P. (1994). Comparative migration policies. International Migration Review, 28(1), 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martinez-Saldaňa, J. (2003). Los Olvidados become heroes: The evolution of Mexico’s policies towards citizens abroad. In E. Østergaard-Nielsen (Ed.), International migration and sending countries: Perceptions, policies and transnational relations (pp. 33–56). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  48. Massey, D. S. (1999). International migration at the dawn of the twenty-first century: The role of the state. Population and Development Review, 25(2), 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1998). Worlds in motion: Understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Meyers, O. (2001). A home away from home? Israel Shelanu and the self-perceptions of Israeli migrants. Israel Studies, 6(3), 71–90.Google Scholar
  51. Nagel, C. R., & Staeheli L. A. (2004). Citizenship, identity and transnational migration: Arab immigrants to the United States. Space and Polity, 8(1), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Ǿstergaard-Nielsen, E. (2001). The politics of migrants’ transnational political practices. Oxford: University of Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  54. Ǿstergaard-Nielsen E. (Ed.) (2003). International migration and sending countries: Perceptions, policies and transnational. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  55. Panossian, R. (1998). Between ambivalence and intrusion: Politics and identity in Armenia-diaspora relations. Diaspora, 7(2), 149–196.Google Scholar
  56. Panossian, R. (2003). Courting a diaspora: Armenia-diaspora relations since 1998. In E. Østergaard-Nielsen. (Ed.), International migration and sending countries: Perceptions, policies and transnational relations (pp. 140–168). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Portes, A. (1978). Migration and underdevelopment. Politics and Society, 8, 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E., & Haller, W. J. (2002). Transnational entrepreneurs: An alternative form of immigrant economic adaptation. American Sociological Review, 67(2), 278–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pries, L. (2001). The approach of transnational social spaces: Responding to new configurations of the social and the spatial. In L. Pries (Ed.), New transnational social spaces: International migration and transnational companies in the early twenty-first century (pp. 3–30). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Ritterbrand, P. (1986). Israelis in New York. Contemporary Jewry, 7, 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sabar, N. (2000). Kibbutzniks in the diaspora. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  62. Sayari, S. (1986). Migration policies of sending countries: Perspectives on the Turkish experience. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 485, 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schiller, N. G., Basch, L., & Blac Szanton, C. (1992). Transnationalism: A new analytic framework for understanding migration. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 645, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shafir, G., & Peled, Y. (2002). Being Israeli: The dynamics of multiple citizenship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Shapira, A. (1997). New Jews, old Jews. Tel Aviv: Am Oved (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  66. Shokeid, M. (1988). Children of circumstances: Israeli emigrants in New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Smith, R. C. (2003). Migrant membership as an instituted process: Transnationalization, the state and the extra-territorial conduct of Mexican politics. International Migration Review, 37(2), 297–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sobel, Z. (1986). Migrants from the promised land. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  69. Soysal, Y. N. (1994) Limits of citizenship: Migrants and postnational membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Stark, O., & Bloom, D. E. (1985). The new economics of labor migration. The American Economic Review, 75(2), 173–178.Google Scholar
  71. Taylor, E. J. (1999). The new economics of labour migration and the role of remittances in the migration process. International Migration, 37(1), 63–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Todaro, M. P. (1969). A model of labor migration and urban unemployment in less developed countries. The American Economic Review, 59(1), 138–148.Google Scholar
  73. Totoricaguena, G. P. (2003). Identity, culture, and politics in the Basque diaspora. Reno: University of Nevada Press.Google Scholar
  74. Van Dijk, T. (1993). Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse and Society, 4, 249–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vertovec, S. (2001). Transnationalism and identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4), 573–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vertovec, S. (2003). Migration and other modes of transnationalism: Towards conceptual cross-fertilization. International Migration Review, 37(3), 641–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vertovec, S. (2004). Cheap calls: The social glue of migrant transnationalism. Global Networks, 4(2), 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yoo, J. K. (2000). Utilisation of social networks for immigrant entrepreneurship: A case study of Korean immigrants in the Atlanta area. International Review of Sociology, 10(3), 347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography & Regional DevelopmentThe University of Arizona in TucsonTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations