Skip to main content

Study on Rockburst Proneness of Deep Tunnel Under Different Geo-Stress Conditions Based on DEM


Rockburst seriously threaten the economic benefits and construction safety of deep tunnel. Rockburst prediction is one of the key scientific issues in rockburst research. In this paper, the elastic strain energy is regarded as the inherent power of rockburst. A multi-factor rockburst criterion is established which consider the properties of rock, the intactness of the rock mass and the releasable elastic strain energy of surrounding rock mass. Using the three-dimensional discrete element method and considering the influence of different geo-stress environments, the stress field and energy characteristics, the failure characteristics and the rockburst proneness of surrounding rock mass were studied after tunnel excavation, and the following summaries are obtained: When the lateral pressure coefficient is same, the stress and releasable elastic energy distribution characteristics of surrounding rock mass under different buried depths are basically the same. With the increase of the buried depth, the value of the stress and releasable elastic strain energy increase, and the rockburst is more prone. The area where the surrounding rock mass break or rockburst occurs consistent with the area with larger elastic strain energy releasing. The research results can improve the understanding of ruckburst mechanism and provide a reference for rockburst prediction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 5

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are included and showed within the article.


  1. Chen W, Lv S, Guo X et al (2009) Research on unloading confining pressure test and rockburst criterion based on energy theory. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 028(008):1530–1540.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Dai L, Pan Y, Li Z et al (2021) Quantitative mechanism of roadway rockbursts in deep extra-thick coal seams: theory and case histories. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 111:103861.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Feng X, Xiao Y, Feng G et al (2019) Study on the development process of rockbursts. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 38(04):649–673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Gong F, Wang Y, Luo S (2020) Rockburst proneness criteria for rock materials: review and new insights. J Cent South Univ 27(10):2793–2821.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hoek E, Martin CD (2014) Fracture initiation and propagation in intact rock—a review. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6(4):287–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Huang B, Liu C, Fu J et al (2011) Hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting for increased fracturing. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48(6):976–983.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Jiang F, Zhou H, Liu C et al (2019) Progress, prediction and prevention of rockbursts in underground metal mines. Chin J Rock Mechan Eng 38(05):956–972.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Liu L (2014) Prediction of rockburst while tunneling in high geological stress areas. Central South University, Changsha

    Google Scholar 

  9. Liu P, Fan J, Guo J et al (2021) Damage and energy evolution characteristics of granite under triaxial stress. Chin J High Press Phys 35(02):44–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Liu X, Xia Y, Lin M et al (2021) Experimental study on the influence of tangential stress gradient on the energy evolution of strainburst. Bull Eng Geol Environ 80(6):4515–4528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Meng F, Wong L, Zhou H (2021) Rock brittleness indices and their applications to different fields of rock engineering: a review. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 13(1):221–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Su G, Feng X, Jiang Q et al (2006) (2006) Study on new index of local energy release rate for stability analysis and optimal design of underground rockmass engineering with high geostress. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 12:2453–2460.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Wang J, Apel DB, Pu Y et al (2020) Numerical modeling for rockbursts: a state-of-the-art review. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Wang K (2021) Overview of state-of-art of rockburst prediction and prevention techniques for deep-buried tunnels. Tunnel Constr 41(2):212

    Google Scholar 

  15. Xiao YX, Feng XT, Li SJ et al (2016) Rock mass failure mechanisms during the evolution process of rockbursts in tunnels. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 83:174–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Xie H, Ju Y, Li Y (2005) Criteria for strength and structural failure of rocks based on energy dissipation and energy release principles. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 17:3003–3010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Xu J, Jiang J, Xu N et al (2017) A new energy index for evaluating the tendency of rockburst and its engineering application. Eng Geol 230:46–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Xu L (2004) Research of rockburst character and prevention measure in erlang mountain highway tunnel. Chin Civil Eng J 37(01):61–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Xu T, Fu T, Heap M et al (2020) Mesoscopic damage and fracturing of heterogeneous brittle rocks based on three-dimensional polycrystalline discrete element method. Rock Mech Rock Eng.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Yan J, He C, Wang B et al (2020) Research on characteristics and mechanism of rockburst occurring in high geo-temperature and high geo-stress tunnel. J China Railw Soc 42(12):186–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Yan J, He C, Meng W et al (2019) Inoculation and characters of rockbursts in extra-long and deep-lying tunnels located on Yarlung Zangbo suture. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 38(04):769–781

    Google Scholar 

  22. Yang F, Zhou H, Lu J et al (2015) An energy criterion in process of rockburst. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 34(S1):2706–2714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Yang Y, Zhang Z (2020) Dynamic fracturing process of fissured rock under abrupt unloading condition: a numerical study. Eng Fract Mech 231:107025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Zhao Z, Xie H (2008) Energy transfer and energy dissipation in rock deformation and fracture. J Sichuan Univ (eng Sci Ed) 40(2):26–31.

  25. Zhang C, Feng X, Zhou H et al (2012) Case histories of four extremely intense rockbursts in deep tunnels. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(3):275–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Zhang J, Fu B (2008) Rockburst and its criteria and control. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 10:2034–2034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Zhou D, Hong K (1995) The rockburst features of Taipingyi tunnel and the prevention methods. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 02:171–178.

Download references


The authors appreciate the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51778215) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded Project (Grant No. 2018M631114).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Junqi Fan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhu, B., Fan, J., Shi, X. et al. Study on Rockburst Proneness of Deep Tunnel Under Different Geo-Stress Conditions Based on DEM. Geotech Geol Eng (2021).

Download citation


  • Deep tunnel
  • Rockburst
  • Geo-stress
  • Releasable elastic strain energy
  • DEM