Excavation Problem in Mixed Ground Conditions at the Kabatas–Mecidiyekoy Metro (Istanbul) Tunnels

  • Mehmet Ozcelik
Original paper


Mechanized tunnelling is a well-established tunnel construction method which allows constructing tunnels in various conditions including mixed ground conditions as well as tunnels in vulnerable urban areas. The selection of the excavator suitable for the geological structure is important in terms of realizing an efficient tunnel excavation. Tunnel excavation studies of Istanbul Kabatas–Mecidiyeköy Metro tunnels are implemented as a double tube. Geology in this section is composed of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone interbedded or as separate units along with dyke intrusions. Calcareous clay, clayey limestone, clayey sand are also rarely observed. Between the Kabatas–Mecidiyekoy tunnels includes two types of mechanical excavation methods namely tunnel boring machine (TBM) and new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM). Main purpose of this study is mixed ground and their impacts on mechanized tunnelling. At the end, some issues have been presented which seems to be important for the success of TBM and NATM in the mixed grounds. As the tunnel excavation studies continued, the problem of collapse on the ground surface of Barbaros Boulevard in Besiktas station increased the importance of tunnel excavation under mixed ground conditions.


Metro Tunnel excavation Geological structure Mixed ground Istanbul 



The author expresses his gratitude to the staff of the Kabatas–Mecidiyekoy Metro partnership for access to the site and construction data. The author is grateful to Alarko Contracting Group, EMAY International Engineering and Consultancy Inc., Artson Geotechnical Engineering Company and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality for their help. The author also thanks the anonymous reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringSüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey

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