The 17 November 2015 Mw 6.4 Lefkas (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) Earthquake: Impact on Environment and Buildings

  • Efthymios Lekkas
  • Spyridon Mavroulis
  • Panayotis Carydis
  • Vassiliki Alexoudi
Original paper

Abstract

On Tuesday, November 17, 2015 at 07:10:07 (UTC) a strong earthquake struck Lefkas Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) with magnitude Mw 6.4, depth of about 6 km and epicenter located 20 km southwest of Lefkas town. It was felt in Lefkas Island and the surrounding region and caused the death of two people, the injury of eight others, many earthquake environmental effects (EEE) and damage to buildings and infrastructures. Secondary EEE were observed in western Lefkas and classified as ground cracks, slope movements and liquefaction phenomena. Primary effects directly linked to surface expression of seismogenic source were not detected in the field. The maximum intensity VIIIESI 2007 was assigned to large-volume slope movements along western coastal Lefkas. Damage to buildings was mainly observed in villages located in Dragano-Athani graben arranged almost parallel to the northern segment of the Cephalonia Transform Fault Zone (Lefkas segment). Among structures constructed with no seismic provisions, the stone masonry buildings and monumental structures suffered most damage, while the traditional buildings of the area with dual structural system performed relatively well and suffered minor damage. Reinforced-concrete buildings were affected not so much by the earthquake itself but by the generation of secondary EEE. The maximum seismic intensities VIIIEMS-98 were assigned to villages located in Dragano-Athani graben due to very heavy structural damage observed on masonry buildings mainly attributed to the combination of the recorded high PGA values, the poor antiseismic design and construction of buildings and the geological and tectonic structure of the affected area.

Keywords

Ionian Islands Strike-slip earthquake Active tectonics Earthquake environmental effects Building damage 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions that greatly improved the paper.

References

  1. Ambraseys N (2009) Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East, a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson H, Jackson J (1987) Active tectonics of the Adriatic region. Geophys J R Astron Soc 91:937–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anzidei M, Baldi P, Casula G, Crespi M, Riguzzi F (1996) Repeated GPS surveys across the Ionian Sea: evidence of crustal deformations. Geophys J Int 127:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) (2015) Permanent regional seismological network operated by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.  https://doi.org/10.7914/sn/ht
  5. Aubouin J (1959) Contribution a l’étude géologique de la Grèce septentrional: le confins de l’ Epire et de la Thessalie. Ann Geol des Pays Hellenique 10:1–483Google Scholar
  6. Audemard F, Azuma T, Baiocco F, Baize S, Blumetti AM, Brustia E, Clague J, Comerci V, Esposito E, Guerrieri L, Gurpinar A, Grützner C, Jin K, Kim YS, Kopsachilis V, Lucarini M, McCalpin J, Michetti AM, Mohammadioun B, Morner NA, Okumura K, Ota Y, Papathanassiou G, Pavlides S, Perez Lopez R, Porfido S, Reicherter K, Rodriguez Pascua MA, Roghozin E, Scaramella A, Serva L, Silva PG, Sintubin M, Tatevossian R, Vittori E (2015) Earthquake environmental effect for seismic hazard assessment: the ESI intensity scale and the EEE catalogue. Mem Carta geologica d’Italia, p 97Google Scholar
  7. Benetatos C, Kiratzi A, Roumelioti Z, Stavrakakis G, Drakatos G, Latoussakis I (2005) The 14 August 2003 Lefkada Island (Greece) earthquake: focal mechanisms of the mainshock and of the aftershock sequence. J Seismol 9:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornovas J (1964) Géologie de l’ île de Lefkade. Geol Geophys Res (I.G.S.R.) 10(1):142Google Scholar
  9. BP Co (1971) The geological results of petroleum exploration in western Greece, Institute of Geology Subsurface Research Athens, vol 10, p 73Google Scholar
  10. Carydis P (2002) The vertical seismic component “The Colombus’ egg in earthquake engineering”. In: 12th European conference on earthquake engineering, 9–13 September 2002, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Carydis P (2004) The effect of the vertical earthquake motion in near field. In: Jones N, Brebbia C A (eds) 8th international conference on structures under shock and impact SUSI VIII. WIT Press, pp 267–282Google Scholar
  12. Carydis P (2014) Lessons learned from the recent Cephalonia earthquakes. Carpenter-Turner Reinsurance International Conference, Athens, October, p 189Google Scholar
  13. Carydis P, Lekkas E (2011) The Haiti Earthquake Mw = 7.0 of January 12th 2010: structural and geotechnical engineering field observations, near-field ground motion and interpretation of the damage to buildings and infrastructure in Port-au-Prince area. Ing Sism 28(3):24–42Google Scholar
  14. Carydis P, Castiglioni C, Lekkas E, Kostaki I, Lebesis N, Drei A (2012a) The Emilia Romagna, May 2012 earthquake sequence. The influence of the vertical earthquake component and related geoscientific and engineering aspects. Ing Sism 29(2):31–58Google Scholar
  15. Carydis P, Lekkas E, Papaioannou C, Tsokos A, Delakouridis J (2012b) The October 23 (Mw = 7.2) and November 9 (Mw = 5.7), 2011 Van, Turkey earthquakes. A geoscientific and engineering report. Ing Sism 29(1):13–37Google Scholar
  16. Carydis P, Lekkas E, Kritikos Th (2012b) The Mw 7.1 Sept 4 2010 and Mw 6.3 Febr 22 2011, New Zealand Eqs. Comparison of EMS1998 and ESI2007 Data. In: 15th world conference on earthquake engineering (15WCEE), paper no. 0190, LisbonGoogle Scholar
  17. Chousianitis K, Konca AO, Tselentis G-A, Papadopoulos GA, Gianniou M (2016) Slip model of the 17 November 2015 M = 6.5 Lefkada earthquake from the joint inversion of geodetic and seismic data. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069764Google Scholar
  18. Cocard M, Kahle H-G, Peter Y, Geiger A, Veis G, Felekis S, Billiris H, Paradissis D (1999) New constraints on the rapid crustal motion of the Aegean region: recent results inferred from GPS measurements (1993–1998) across the West Hellenic Arc, Greece. Earth Planet Sci Lett 172:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cushing M (1985) Evolution structurale de la marge nord-ouest hellénique dans l’île de Lefkas et ses environs (Grèce nord-occidentale). Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. d’ OrsayGoogle Scholar
  20. Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) (2003) Greek seismic code (GSC 2000). Earthquake Planning and protection Organization, AthensGoogle Scholar
  21. Fokaefs A, Papadopoulos GA (2004) Historical earthquakes in the region of Lefkada Island, Ionian Sea estimation of magnitudes from epicentral intensities. Bull Geol Soc Greece 36:1389–1395Google Scholar
  22. Fountoulis IG, Mavroulis SD (2013) Application of the Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) and the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) to the Kalamata (SW Peloponnese, Greece) earthquake (Ms = 6.2, September 13, 1986) and correlation with neotectonic structures and active faults. Ann Geophys 56, 6, 2013, S0675.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6237
  23. Ganas A, Elias P, Bozionelos G, Papathanassiou G, Papastergios A, Valkaniotis S, Parcharidis I, Briole P, Avallone A (2016) Coseismic deformation, field observations and seismic fault of the 17 November 2015 M = 6.5, Lefkada Island, Greece, earthquake. Tectonophysics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.08.012Google Scholar
  24. Grünthal G (ed) (1998) European Macroseismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98). Cahiers du Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie 15, Centre Européen de Géodynamique et de Séismologie, Luxembourg, p 99Google Scholar
  25. Guerrieri L, Blumetti AM, Esposito E, Michetti AM, Porfido S, Serva L, Tondi E, Vittori E (2009) Capable faulting, environmental effects and seismic landscape in the area affected by the 1997 Umbria–Marche (Central Italy) seismic sequence. Tectonophysics 476:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hollenstein CH, Geiger A, Kahle H-G, Veis G (2006) CGPS time-series and trajectories of crustal motion along the West Hellenic Arc. Geophys J Int 164(1):182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hollenstein CH, Müller MD, Geiger A, Kahle H-G (2008) Crustal motion and deformation in Greece from a decade of GPS measurements 1993-2003. Tectonophysics 449:17–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IGRS-IFP (1966) Etude geologique de l’Epire. Technip, Paris, p 306Google Scholar
  29. Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (EPPO-IESEE, 2015a) Strong earthquake motion of the Lefkas earthquake (M 6.0) on 17/11/2015. http://www.itsak.gr/uploads/news/earthquake_reports/Lefkas_M6.0_17-11-2015.pdf
  30. Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (EPPO-IESEE, 2015b) Preliminary report on the Lefkas earthquake Mw 6.4 on 17/11/2015. http://www.slideshare.net/itsak-eppo/lefkas-eq-mw64-20151117-report
  31. Jackson JA, McKenzie DP (1988) The relationship between plate motions and seismic moment tensors, and the rates of active deformation in the Mediterranean and Middle East. Geophys J R Astron Soc 93:45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jacobshagen V (1986) Geologie von Griechenland. Gebruder Bornträger, Berlin, p 363Google Scholar
  33. Jenny S, Goes S, Giardini D, Kahle H-G (2004) Earthquake recurrence parameters from seismic and geodetic strain rates in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophys J Int 157:1331–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Karakitsios V, Rigakis N (2007) Evolution and petroleum potential of Western Greece. J Pet Geol 30(3):197–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karakostas VG, Papadimitriou EE, Papazaxos BC (2004) Properties of the 2003 Lefkada, Ionian Islands, Greece, earthquake seismic sequence and seismicity triggering. Bull Seism Soc Am 94(5):1976–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karakostas C, Lekidis V, Makarios T, Salonikios T, Sous I, Demosthenous M (2005) Seismic response of structures and infrastructure facilities during the Lefkas, Greece earthquake of 14/8/2003. Eng Struct 27:213–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kassaras I, Kalantoni D, Benetatos C, Kaviris G, Michalaki K, Sakellariou N, Makropoulos K (2015) Seismic damage scenarios in Lefkas old town (W. Greece). Bull Earth Eng 13(12):3669–3711.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9789-z
  38. Kiratzi A, Langston C (1991) Moment tensor inversion of the January 17, 1983 Kefallinia event of Ionian Islands (Greece). Geophys J Int 105:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kouris LAS, Kappos AJ (2015) Fragility curves and loss estimation for traditional Timber-Framed Masonry Buildings in Lefkas, Greece. In: Psycharis In et al. (eds) Seismic assessment, behavior and retrofit of heritage buildings and monuments, computational methods in applied sciences, vol 12, pp 199–233.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16130-3_8
  40. Le Pichon X, Chamot-Rooke N, Lallemant S (1995) Geodetic determination of the kinematics of central Greece with respect to Europe: implications for eastern Mediterranean tectonics. J Geophys Res 100(B7):12675–12690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lekkas E (2010a) Macroseismicity and geological effects of the Wenchuan Earthquake (Ms 8.0r–12 May 2008), Sichuan, China: macro-distribution and comparison of EMS1998 and ESI2007 intensities. Bull Geol Soc Greece 43(3):1361–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lekkas E (2010b) The 12 May 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: macroseismic intensity assessment using the EMS-98 and ESI 2007 scales and their correlation with the geological structure. Bull Seism Soc Am 100(5B):2791–2804.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120090244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lekkas EL, Mavroulis SD (2015) Earthquake environmental effects and ESI 2007 seismic intensities of the early 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0). Nat Hazards 78:1517–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lekkas E, Danamos G, Lozios S (1999) Analytical study of seismicity, seismic hazard and geotechnical conditions of Lefkada with emphasis in the area of the town and the west coast. Applied Scientific Research Program, Department of Dynamic Tectonic Applied Geology, University of AthensGoogle Scholar
  45. Lekkas E, Danamos G, Lozios S (2001) Neotectonic structure and evolution of Lefkas Island. Bull Geol Soc Greece 34(1):157–163Google Scholar
  46. Lekkas E, Danamos G, Lozios S, Skourtsos E, Verykiou E (2004) The geographic distribution of landslides of Lefkas earthquake (August 14 2003) and factors affecting their generation. 10th International Congress of the Greek Geological Society, extended abstracts, 130–131Google Scholar
  47. Louvari E, Kiratzi AA, Papazachos BC (1999) The Cephalonia transform fault and its extension to western Lefkada Island (Greece). Tectonophysics 308:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Makarios T, Demosthenous M (2006) Seismic response of traditional buildings of Lefkas Island, Greece. Eng Struct 28:264–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Makarios T, Demosthenous M (2015) Earthquake response of historic buildings at Lefkas Island. In: Ruggieri N et al (eds) Historical earthquake-resistant timber frames in the Mediterranean area, pp 149–156.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16187-7_12
  50. Makropoulos KC, Burton PW (1984) Greek tectonics and seismicity. Tectonophysics 106:275–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Makropoulos K, Kaviris G, Kouskouna V (2012) An updated and extended earthquake catalogue for Greece and adjacent areas since 1900. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:1425–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maqsood ST, Schwarz J, Edwards M (2013) Application of the European Macroseismic Scale—1998 in the Asia-Pacific region. In: Adam C, Heuer R, Lenhardt W, Schranz C (eds) Proceedings: Vienna congress on recent advances in earthquake engineering and structural dynamics 2013 (VEESD 2013), 28–30 August 2013, Vienna, Austria paper no. 470Google Scholar
  53. Margaris B, Papaioannou C, Theodulidis N, Savvaidis A, Anastasiadis A, Klimis N, Makra K, Demosthenous M, Karakostas C, Lekidis V, Makarios T, Salonikios T, Sous I, Carydis P, Lekkas E, Lozios S, Skourtsos E, Danamos G (2003) Preliminary observations on the August 14, 2003 Lefkada Island (Western Greece) Earthquake, EERI special earthquake report, Nov. 2003. (Joint report by Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, National Technical University of Athens and University of Athens), pp 1–12Google Scholar
  54. Mariolakos I, Papanikolaou D (1981) The neogene basins of the Aegean Arc from the paleogeographic and the geodynamic point of view. In: Proceedings of the international symposium Hellenic Arc and Trench (HEAT) I 383-399Google Scholar
  55. Mariolakos I, Papanikolaou D (1987) Deformation pattern and relation between deformation and seismicity in the Hellenic arc. Bull Geol Soc Greece 19:59–76Google Scholar
  56. Mavroulis SD, Fountoulis IG, Skourtsos EN, Lekkas EL, Papanikolaou ID (2013) Seismic intensity assignments for the 2008 Andravida (NW Peloponnese, Greece) strike-slip event (June 8, Mw = 6.4) based on the application of the Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) and the European Macroseismic scale (EMS-98). Geological structure, active tectonics, earthquake environmental effects and damage pattern. Ann Geophys 56, 6, S0681.  https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6239
  57. Mavroulis S, Alexoudi V, Grambas A, Lekkas E, Carydis P (2017) The January–February 2014 Cephalonia (Ionian Sea, western Greece) earthquake sequence: damage pattern on buildings. Paper No 414, 16th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, Chile, p 12 (In: 96 Special Session-Evolution of EMS-98 Building Types, Vulnerability Classes and Damage Grade Description towards an International Macroseismic Scale)Google Scholar
  58. McGowan SM, Jaiswal KS, Wald DJ (2016) Using structural damage statistics to derive macroseismic intensity within the Kathmandu valley for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.08.002
  59. Mercier J, Sorel D, Simeakis K (1987) Changes in the state of stress in the overriding plate of a subduction zone: the Aegean Arc from the Pliocene to the Present. Ann Tectonicae 1(1):20–39Google Scholar
  60. Michetti AM, Esposito E, Guerrieri L, Porfido S, Serva L, Tatevossian R, Vittori E, Audemard F, Azuma T, Clague J, Comerci V, Gurpinar A, McCalpin J, Mohammadioun B, Mörner NA, Ota Y, Roghozin E (2007) Intensity Scale ESI 2007. In: Guerrieri L, Vittori E (eds) Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d’ Italia, vol 74, Servizio Geologico d’Italia-Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, APAT, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  61. Newmark ΝΜ, Rosenblueth Ε (1971) Fundamentals of earthquake engineering. Prentice Hall Inc, Upper Saddle River, p 640Google Scholar
  62. Papadimitriou EE (1993) Focal mechanism along the convex side of the Hellenic Arc. Boll Geof Teor Appl 35(140):401–426Google Scholar
  63. Papanikolaou D (2015) Geology of Greece. Patakis Publications, Athens, p 448Google Scholar
  64. Papanikolaou D, Bargathi H, Dabovski C, Dimitriu R, El-Hawat A, Ioane D, Kranis H, Obeidi A, Oaie G, Seghedi A, Zagorchev I (2004) Transect VII: East European Craton-Scythian Platform-Dobrogea-Balkanides-Rhodope Massif-Hellenides-East Mediterranean-Cyrenaica. In: Cavazza W, Roure F, Spakman W, Stampfli GM, Ziegler PA (eds) The TRANSMED Atlas-The Mediterranean Region from Crust to Mantle-Geological and Geophysical Framework of the Mediterranean and the Surrounding AreasGoogle Scholar
  65. Papanikolaou ID, Papanikolaou DI, Lekkas EL (2009) Advances and limitations of the Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI 2007) regarding near-field and far-field effects from recent earthquakes in Greece: implications for the seismic hazard assessment. Geol Soc (London) 316:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Papathanassiou G, Pavlides S (2007) Using the INQUA scale for the assessment of intensity: case study of the 2003 Lefkada (Ionian Islands), Greece earthquake. Quat Int 173–174:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Papathanassiou G, Pavlides S, Ganas A (2005) The 2003 Lefkada earthquake: field observations and preliminary microzonation map based on liquefaction potential index for the town of Lefkada. Eng Geol 82:12–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Papazachos BC (1990) Seismicity of the Aegean and surrounding area. Tectonophysics 178:287–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Papazachos C, Kiratzi A (1996) A detailed study of the active crustal deformation in the Aegean and surrounding area. Tectonophysics 253:129–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Papazachos B, Papazachou C (1989) The earthquakes of Greece. Ziti Publ., Thessaloniki (in Greek)Google Scholar
  71. Papazachos B, Papazachou C (1997) The earthquakes of Greece. Ziti Publ, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  72. Papazachos B, Papazachou C (2003) The earthquakes of Greece. Ziti Publ, Thessaloniki (in Greek)Google Scholar
  73. Papazachos BC, Comninakis PE, Karakaisis GF, Karakostas BG, Papaioannou ChA, Papazachos CB, Scordilis EM (2000) A catalogue of earthquakes in Greece and surrounding area for the period 550BC-1999. Publications Geophysical Laboratory, University of Thessaloniki, 1, p 333Google Scholar
  74. Papazachos BC, Comninakis PE, Scordilis EM, Karakaisis GF, Papazachos CB (2010) A catalogue of earthquakes in the Mediterranean and surrounding area for the period 1901–2010, Publications Geophysical Laboratory, University of ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  75. Renz C (1955) Die vorneogene Stratigraphie der normal-sedimentaren Formationen Griechenlands, Institute for Geology and Subsurface Research, p 637Google Scholar
  76. Rondoyanni Th (1997) Les seismes et l’environnement geólogique de l’île de Lefkade, Grèce: Passe et Futur. In: Marinos Koukis, Tsiambaos Stournaras (eds) Engineering geology and the environment, paper presented at the international symposium on engineering geology and the environment. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 1469–1474Google Scholar
  77. Rondoyanni Th, Sakellariou M, Baskoutas J, Christodoulou N (2012) Evaluation of active faulting and earthquake secondary effects in Lefkas Island, Ionian Sea, Greece: an overview. Nat Hazards 61:843–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schwarz J, Abrahamczyk L, Leipold M, Wenk T (2015) Vulnerability assessment and damage description for R.C. frame structures following the EMS-98 principles. Bull Earthq Eng 13:1141–1159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-014-9694-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Scordilis EM, Karakaisis GF, Karakostas BG, Panagiotopoulos DG, Comninakis PE, Papazachos BC (1985) Evidence for transform faulting in the Ionian Sea: the Cephalonia island earthquake sequence of 1983. Pure Appl Geophys 123(3):388–397.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00880738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Skarlatoudis AA, Papazachos CB, Margaris BN, Theodulidis NT, Papaioannou Ch (2003) Empirical peak ground-motion predictive relations for shallow earthquakes in Greece. Bull Seism Soc Am 93(6):2591–2603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sokos E, Zahradník J, Gallovič F, Serpetsidaki A, Plicka V, Kiratzi A (2016) Asperity break after 12 years: the Mw6.4 2015 Lefkada (Greece) earthquake. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069427Google Scholar
  82. Sorel D (1976) Etude neotectonique des isles ioniennes de Cephalonie et Zanthe et de l’ Elide occidentale (Grece). These du 3em cycle, Universite de Paris-Sud, Centre d’ OrsayGoogle Scholar
  83. Sorel D, Mercier JL, Kedraudren B, Cushing M (1988) Le role de la fraction de la lithosphere subductee dans l’ evolution geodynamique plio-pleistocene de l’ arc egeen: mouvements verticaux alternes et variations du regime tectonique. C. R. Ac. Sci. Paris 307 Serie II, 1981–1986Google Scholar
  84. Stucchi M, Rovida A, Gomez Capera AA, Alexandre P, Camelbeeck T, Demircioglu MB, Gasperini P, Kouskouna V, Musson RMW, Radulian M, Sesetyan K, Vilanova S, Baumont D, Bungum H, Fäh D, Lenhardt W, Makropoulos K, Martinez Solares JM, Scotti O, Zivcic M, Albini P, Batllo J, Papaioannou C, Tatevossian R, Locati M, Meletti C, Viganò D, Giardini D (2013) The SHARE European earthquake catalogue (SHEEC) 1000–1899. J Seismol 17(2):523–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Taymaz T, Jackson J, McKenzie D (1991) Active tectonics of the north and central Aegean Sea. Geophys J Int 106:433–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tertulliani A, Arcoraci L, Berardi M, Bernardini F, Camassi R, Castellano C, Del Mese S, Ercolani E, Graziani L, Leschiutta I, Rossi A, Vecchi M (2011) An application of EMS98 in a medium-sized city: the case of L’Aquila (Central Italy) after the April 6, 2009 Mw 6.3 earthquake. Bull Earthq 9:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Triantafyllou M (2010) Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Langhian deposits in Lefkas (Ionian Islands). Bull Geol Soc Greece 43(2):754–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vintzileou E (2011) Timber-reinforced structures in Greece: 2500 BC–1900 AD. Struct Build 164(SB3):167–180.  https://doi.org/10.1680/stbu.9.00085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vintzileou E, Zagkotsis A, Repapis C, Zeris Ch (2007) Seismic behaviour of the historical structural system of the island of Lefkas, Greece. Constr Build Mater 21:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Efthymios Lekkas
    • 1
  • Spyridon Mavroulis
    • 1
  • Panayotis Carydis
    • 2
  • Vassiliki Alexoudi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dynamic Tectonic Applied Geology, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, School of SciencesNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.National Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations