Factors Affecting Strength and Stiffness of Dry Sand-Rubber Tire Shred Mixtures

Abstract

This paper deals with the characterization of dry sand-rubber tire shred mixtures to find shear strength and dynamic properties. A series of ordinary triaxial shear tests, direct shear tests and dynamic triaxial tests were performed on dense dry sand-rubber tire shred mixtures for various rubber replacement levels such as 0, 10, 30, 50 and 100% by weight. The effects of rubber content, confining pressures and rates of shearing on the angle of internal friction of the mixtures were investigated. Also, the influence of rubber content and the rate of horizontal displacement on the volumetric strain is presented. In addition, this paper proposes an appropriate method to find the angle of repose of dry sand-rubber tire shred mixtures. The angle of repose of the mixtures is compared with the angles of internal friction obtained from triaxial shear and direct shear tests. Finally, the effects of saturation, rubber content, axial strain, frequency and number of cycles of loading on the strain-dependent stiffness and damping properties of these mixtures were studied.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25

References

  1. Ahmed I, Lovell CW (1993) Rubber soils as light weight geomaterials. (Transportation research rec. no. 1422.) Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC

  2. Anastasiadis A, Senetakis K, Pitilakis K, Gargala C, Karakasi I (2012a) Dynamic behavior of sand/rubber mixtures. Part I: effect of rubber content and Duration of confinement on small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio. J ASTM Int 9(2):1–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Anastasiadis A, Senetakis K, Pitilakis K (2012b) Small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of sand-rubber and gravel-rubber mixtures. Geotech Geol Eng 30(2):363–382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anbazhagan P, Manohar DR (2015) Energy absorption capacity and shear strength characteristics of waste tire crumbs and sand mixtures. Int J Geotech Earthq Eng 6(1):28–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. ASTM (2007) Standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils: D422-63. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  6. ASTM (2011a) Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System):D2487-11. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  7. ASTM (2011b) Standard test methods for the determination of the modulus and damping properties of soils using the cyclic triaxial apparatus: D3999/D3999M-11. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  8. ASTM (2014) Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer: D854-14. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  9. ASTM (2016a) Standard test methods for maximum index density and unit weight of soils using a vibratory table: D4253-16. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  10. ASTM (2016b) Standard test methods for minimum index density and unit weight of soils and calculation of relative density: D4254-16. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. ASTM International, West Conshohocken

    Google Scholar 

  11. Balachowski L, Gottelend P (2007) Characteristics of tyre chips-sand mixtures from triaxial tests. Arch Hydro Eng Environ Mech 54(1):25–36

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bergado DT, Youwai S, Rittirong A (2005) Strength and deformation characteristics of flat and cubical rubber tyre chip-sand mixtures. Geotechnique 55(8):603–606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bosscher PJ, Edil TB, Kuraoka S (1997) Design of highway embankments using tire chips. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 123(4):295–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cabalar AF (2011) Direct shear tests on waste tires-sand mixtures. Geotech Geol Eng 29(4):411–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cherian A, Kumar J (2016) Effects of vibration cycles on shear modulus and damping of sand using resonant column tests. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0001545

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Disfani MM, Tsang HH, Arulrajah A, Yaghoubi E (2017) Shear and compression characteristics of recycled glass-tire mixtures. J Mater Civ Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001857

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Edil TB, Bosscher PJ (1994) Engineering properties of tire chips and soil mixtures. Geotech Test J 17(4):453–464

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Edincliler A, Ayhan V (2010) Influence of tire fiber inclusions on shear strength of sand. Geosynth Int 17(4):183–192

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ehsani M, Shariatmadari N, Mirhosseini SM (2015) Shear modulus and damping ratio of sand-granulated rubber mixtures. J Cent South Univ 22:3159–3167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Foose GJ, Benson CH, Bosscher PJ (1996) Sand reinforced with shredded waste tires. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 122(9):760–767

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ghayoomi M, Suprunenko G, Mirshekari M (2017) Cyclic triaxial tests to measure strain dependent shear modulus of unsaturated sand. Int J Geomech. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)gm.1943-5622.0000917

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ghazavi M (2004) Shear strength characteristics of sand-mixed with granulated rubber. Geotech Geol Eng 22(3):401–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hazarika H, Otani J, Kikuchi Y (2012) Evaluation of tyre products as ground improving geomaterials. Ground Improv 165(4):267–282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lambe TW, Whitman RV (1969) Soil mechanics. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  25. Lee JH, Salgado R, Bernall A, Lovell CW (1999) Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 125(2):132–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Li B, Huang M, Zeng X (2016) Dynamic behavior and liquefaction analysis of recycled-rubber sand mixtures. J Mater Civ Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0001629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Madhusudhan BN, Kumar J (2013) Damping of sands for varying saturation. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0000895

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Madhusudhan BR, Boominathan A, Subhadeep Banerjee (2017) Static and large-strain dynamic properties of sand-rubber tire shred mixtures. J Mater Civ Eng. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0002016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Madhusudhan BR, Boominathan A, Subhadeep Banerjee (2018) Comparison of cyclic triaxial test results on sand-rubber tire shred mixtures with dynamic simple shear test results. GSP. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481486.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mashiri MS, Vinod JS, Neaz Sheikh M, Tsang HH (2015) Shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of sand-tyre chip mixture. Soils Found 55(3):517–528

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Nakhaei A, Marandi SM, Kermani SS, Bagheripour MH (2012) Dynamic properties of granular soils mixed with granulated rubber. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 43:124–132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Poh PSH, Broms BB (1995) Slope stabilization using old rubber tires and geotextiles. J Perform Constr Facil 9(1):76–80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Rowe RK, McIsaac R (2005) Clogging of tire shreds and gravel permeated with landfill leachate. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 131(6):682–693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Senetakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis K, Souli A (2012a) Dynamic behavior of sand/rubber mixtures. Part II: effect of rubber content on G/GO-γ-DT curves and volumetric threshold strain. J ASTM Int 9(2):1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Senetakis K, Anastasiadis A, Pitilakis K (2012b) Dynamic properties of dry sand/rubber (SRM) and gravel/rubber (GRM) mixtures in a wide range of shearing strain amplitudes. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 33(1):38–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Tsang HH, Lo SH, Xu X, Sheikh MN (2012) Seismic isolation for low-to-medium-rise buildings using granulated rubber-soil mixtures: numerical study. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 41(14):2009–2024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Tweedie JJ, Humphrey DN, Sandford TC (1998) Tire shreds as lightweight retaining wall backfill: active conditions. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 124(11):1061–1070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wu WY, Benda CC, Cauley RF (1997) Triaxial determination of shear strength of tire chips. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 123:479–482. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(1997)123:5(479)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Xiong W, Li Y (2013) Seismic isolation using granulated tire-soil mixtures for less developed regions: experimental validation. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 42(14):2187–2193

    Google Scholar 

  40. Yang S, Lohnes RA, Kjartanson BH (2002) Mechanical properties of shredded tires. Geotech Test J 25(1):44–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Zhou YC, Xu BH, Yu AB, Zulli P (2002) An experimental and numerical study of the angle of repose of coarse spheres. Powder Technol 125:45–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Zornberg JG, Cabral AR, Viratjandr C (2004) Behaviour of tire shred-sand mixtures. Can Geotech J 41(2):227–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Boominathan.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Madhusudhan, B.R., Boominathan, A. & Banerjee, S. Factors Affecting Strength and Stiffness of Dry Sand-Rubber Tire Shred Mixtures. Geotech Geol Eng 37, 2763–2780 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-018-00792-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dry sand-rubber tire shred mixtures
  • Friction angle
  • Angle of repose
  • Dynamic triaxial
  • Shear modulus
  • Damping