Skip to main content

Injectability of Microfine Cement Grouts into Limestone Sands with Different Gradations: Experimental Investigation and Prediction

Abstract

One-dimensional injection tests were conducted on dry and dense sand columns with a height of 36.5 cm for the injectability evaluation of cement grouts. Three ordinary cement types were pulverized to obtain fine-grained cements having nominal maximum grain sizes of 40, 20 and 10 μm. Suspensions of these cements with water to cement (W/C) ratios of 1, 2 and 3, by weight, were injected into 54 clean, limestone sands with different gradations. Pulverization of the ordinary cements to produce microfine cements extends the range of groutable sands to “medium-to-fine”. Suspension injectability is improved by increasing cement fineness and suspension W/C ratio or by decreasing apparent viscosity and is controlled by the synthesis of the finer portion (d ≤ d25) of the sand gradation. The outcome of the 131 injectability tests conducted is successfully predicted by available groutability criteria at a rate ranging between 51 and 69%. The “new groutability and filtration criteria” proposed in this study, are adapted to the finer 25% of the sand gradation, have successful predictions for 79% of the cases (10–28% higher than those of the existing groutability criteria) and predict successfully the appearance of filtration in 83% of the available cases. The model developed by performing Binary Logistic Regression analyses of the injection test results is considered appropriate for the prediction of injectability of cement grouts in sands because it exhibits a coefficient of multiple determination equal to 0.84 and provides a rate of successful predictions equal to 78% of the available experimental results.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  • Agresti A (2007) An introduction to categorical data analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Akbulut S, Saglamer A (2002) Estimating the groutability of granular soils: a new approach. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 17(4):371–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arenzana L, Krizek RJ, Pepper SF (1989) Injection of dilute microfine cement suspensions into fine sands. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, vol 2, pp 1331–1334

  • ASTM (2007) Standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils. ASTM standard D422. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA

  • ASTM (2009) Standard specification for wire cloth and sieves for testing purposes. ASTM standard E11. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA

  • Axelsson M, Gustafson G, Fransson A (2009) Stop mechanism for cementitious grouts at different water-to-cement ratios. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 24(4):390–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bouchelaghem F, Vulliet L (2001) Mathematical and numerical filtration-advection-dispersion model of miscible grout propagation in saturated porous media. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 25(12):1195–1227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bouchelaghem F, Vulliet L, Leroy D, Laloui L, Descoeudres F (2001) Real-scale miscible grout injection experiment and performance of advection-dispersion-filtration model. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 25(12):1149–1173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bremen R (1997) The use of additives in cement grouts. Int J Hydropower Dams 4(1):71–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruce DA, Littlejohn S, Naudts CA (1997) Grouting materials for ground treatment: a practitioner’s guide. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting: compaction—remediation—testing. Logan, ASCE GSP 66, pp 306–334

  • CEN (2000a) Cement—part 1: composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. European standard EN 197-1. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels

  • CEN (2000b) Execution of special geotechnical work—grouting. European standard EN 12715. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels

  • CEN (2004) Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures—test methods—determination of injectability using the sand column test. European standard EN 1771. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels

  • Cheng M-Y, Hoang N-D (2014) A novel groutability estimation model for ground improvement projects in sandy silt soil based on Bayesian framework. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 43(1):453–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chupin O, Saiyouri N, Hicher P-Y (2008) The effects of filtration on the injection of cement-based grouts in sand columns. Transp Porous Media 72(2):227–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chupin O, Saiyouri N, Hicher P-Y (2009) Modeling of a semi-real injection test in sand. Comput Geotech 36(6):1039–1048

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Paoli B, Bosco B, Granata R, Bruce DA (1992a) Fundamental observations on cement based grouts (1): traditional material. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting, soil improvement and geosynthetics. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 30, vol 1, pp 474–485

  • De Paoli B, Bosco B, Granata R, Bruce DA (1992b) Fundamental observations on cement based grouts (2): microfine cements and the CemillR process. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting, soil improvement and geosynthetics. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 30, vol 1, pp 486–499

  • Draganovic A, Stille H (2011) Filtration and penetrability of cement-based grout: study performed with a short slot. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 26(4):548–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eklund D, Stille H (2008) Penetrability due to filtration tendency of cement-based grouts. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 23(4):389–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson M, Stille H, Anderson J (2000) Numerical calculations for prediction of grout spread with account for filtration and varying aperture. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 15(4):353–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eriksson M, Friedrich M, Vorschulze C (2004) Variations in the rheology and penetrability of cement-based grouts—an experimental study. Cem Concr Res 34(7):1111–1119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Henn R, Davenport R (2005) Ultrafine cement: a critical component of a grouting program. Tunn Tunn Int 37:27–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Henn RW, Soule NC (2010) Ultrafine cement in pressure grouting. ASCE Press, Reston

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (2000) Applied logistic regression, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Huang C-L, Fan J-C, Yang W-J (2007) A study of applying microfine cement grout to sandy silt soil. Sino-Geotech 111(1):71–82

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang C-L, Fan J-C, Liao K-W, Lien T-H (2013) A methodology to build a groutability formula via a heuristic algorithm. KSCE J Civil Eng 17(1):106–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Incecik M, Ceren I (1995) Cement grouting model tests. Bull Tech Univ Istanbul 48(2):305–317

    Google Scholar 

  • Jorne F, Henriques FMA, Baltazar LG (2015) Injection capacity of hydraulic lime grouts in different porous media. Mater Struct 48(7):2211–2233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karol RH (1985) Grout penetrability. In: Proceedings of the conference on issues in dam grouting. Denver, ASCE, pp 27–33

  • Kim Y-S, Whittle AJ (2009) Particle network model for simulating the filtration of a microfine cement grout in sand. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135(2):224–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim J-S, Lee I-M, Jang J-H, Choi H (2009) Groutability of cement-based grout with consideration of viscosity and filtration phenomenon. Int J Numer Anal Methods Geomech 33(16):1771–1797

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krizek RJ, Atmatzidis DK, Wu ZH (1986) Behavior of grouted Erksak sand. Department of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston

  • Krizek RJ, Liao H-J, Borden RH (1992) Mechanical properties of microfine cement/sodium silicate grouted sand. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting, soil improvement and geosynthetics. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 30, vol 1, pp 688–699

  • Legendre Y, Hery P, Vattement H (1987) Microsol grouting, a method for grouting fine alluvium. In: Proceedings of the 6th international offshore mechanics and arctic engineering symposium. Houston, ASME, vol 1, pp 433–440

  • Liao K-W, Fan J-C, Huang C-L (2011) An artificial neural network for groutability prediction of permeation grouting with microfine cement grouts. Comput Geotech 38(8):978–986

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Littlejohn GS (1982) Design of cement based grouts. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting in geotechnical engineering. New Orleans, ASCE, vol 1, pp 35–48

  • Lombardi G (2003) Grouting of rock masses. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on grouting and ground treatment. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 120, vol 1, pp 164–197

  • Maghous S, Saada Z, Dormieux L, Canou J, Dupla JC (2007) A model for in situ grouting with account for particle filtration. Comput Geotech 34(3):164–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Markou IN, Christodoulou DN, Papadopoulos BK (2015) Penetrability of microfine cement grouts: experimental investigation and fuzzy regression modeling. Can Geotech J 52(7):868–882

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miltiadou-Fezans A, Tassios TP (2013) Penetrability of hydraulic grouts. Mater Struct 46(10):1653–1671

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell JK (1981) Soil improvement—state of the art report. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, vol 4, pp 509–565

  • Mittag J, Savvidis S (2003) The groutability of sands—Results from one-dimensional and spherical tests. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on grouting and ground treatment. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 120, vol 2, pp 1372–1382

  • Mollamahmutoglu M (2003) Treatment of medium to coarse grained sands by fine grained Portland cement (FGPC) as an alternative grouting material to silicate-ester grouts. Cem Concr Aggreg 25(1):1–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mollamahmutoglu M, Yilmaz Y (2011) Engineering properties of medium-to-fine sands injected with microfine cement grout. Marine Georesour Geotechnol 29(2):95–109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mollamahmutoglu M, Yilmaz Y, Kutlu I (2007) Grouting performance of microfine cement and silica fume mix into sands. J ASTM Int 4(4):1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Paillere AM, Buil M, Miltiadou A, Guinez R, Serrano JJ (1989) Use of silica fume and superplasticizers in cement grouts for injection of fine cracks. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete. Trondheim, Norway, ACI, vol 2, pp 1131–1157

  • Pantazopoulos IA, Markou IN, Christodoulou DN, Droudakis AI, Atmatzidis DK, Antiohos SK, Chaniotakis E (2012) Development of microfine cement grouts by pulverizing ordinary cements. Cem Concr Comp 34(5):593–603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perret S (1997) Contribution a l’étude des critères d’injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans le sol fins. M.Sc. Thesis, Université de Sherbrooke

  • Perret S, Ballivy G, Khayat K, Mnif T (1997) Injectability of fine sand with cement-based grout. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting: compaction—remediation—testing. Logan, ASCE GSP 66, pp 289–305

  • Saada Z, Canou J, Dormieux L, Dupla JC (2006) Evaluation of elementary filtration properties of a cement grout injected in a sand. Can Geotech J 43(12):1273–1289

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sano M, Shimoda M, Matsuo O, Koseki J (1996) Microfine cement grouting as a countermeasure against liquefaction. In: Proceedings of the conference on grouting and deep mixing. Tokyo, Balkema, Rotterdam, vol 1, pp 65–70

  • Santagata MC, Collepardi M (1998) Selection of cement-based grouts for soil treatment. In: Proceedings of the geo-congress’98. Boston, ASCE GSP 80, pp 177–195

  • Santagata MC, Santagata E (2003) Experimental investigation of factors affecting the injectability of microcement grouts. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on grouting and ground treatment. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 120, vol 2, pp 1221–1234

  • Schwarz LG, Krizek RJ (1994) Effect of preparation technique on permeability and strength of cement-grouted sand. Geotech Test J 17(4):434–443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwarz LG, Krizek RJ (2006) Hydrocarbon residuals and containment in microfine cement grouted sand. J Mater Civ Eng 18(2):214–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamura M, Goto T, Ogino T, Shimizu K (1994) Injection with ultrafine cement into fine sand layer. In: Proceedings of the 4th international offshore and polar engineering conference. Osaka, International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers, vol 1, pp 567–571

  • Tekin E, Akbas SO (2011) Artificial neural networks approach for estimating the groutability of granular soils with cement-based grouts. Bull Eng Geol Environ 70(1):153–161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toumbakari E-E, Van Gemert D, Tassios TP, Tenoutasse N (1999) Effect of mixing procedure on injectability of cementitious grouts. Cem Concr Res 29(6):867–872

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warner J (2003) Soil solidification with ultrafine cement grout. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on grouting and ground treatment. New Orleans, ASCE GSP 120, vol 2, pp 1360–1371

  • Yoon J, El Mohtar C (2013) Groutability of granular soils using sodium pyrophosphate modified bentonite suspensions. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 37(1):135–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zebovitz S, Krizek RJ, Atmatzidis DK (1989) Injection of fine sands with very fine cement grout. J Geotech Eng 115(12):1717–1733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ziming W, Daneng H, Yaosheng X (1990) Investigation of the rheological properties and groutability of fresh cement pastes. In: Proceedings of the international conference on rheology of fresh cement and concrete. Liverpool, E.&F.N. Spon, London, pp 207–213

Download references

Acknowledgements

The research effort reported herein is part of the research project PENED-03ED527, which was co-financed by the European Union—European Social Fund (75%) and the Greek Ministry of Development—General Secretariat for Research and Technology (25%). The contribution of TITAN Cement Company S.A. was substantial for the selection, chemical analysis, pulverization, and grain-size analysis of the cements.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to I. N. Markou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Markou, I.N., Christodoulou, D.N., Petala, E.S. et al. Injectability of Microfine Cement Grouts into Limestone Sands with Different Gradations: Experimental Investigation and Prediction. Geotech Geol Eng 36, 959–981 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-017-0368-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-017-0368-8

Keywords

  • Cement grouting
  • Microfine cements
  • Injectability
  • Filtration
  • Groutability criteria
  • Binary Logistic Regression model