Advertisement

Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 885–896 | Cite as

Laboratory Investigation of the Effect of Initial Dry Density and Grain Size Distribution on Soil–Water Characteristic Curves of Wide-Grading Gravelly Soil

  • Xiaoqing Chen
  • Kai HuEmail author
  • Jiangang Chen
  • Wanyu Zhao
Original paper
  • 315 Downloads

Abstract

Wide-grading gravelly soils are often encountered in debris flow source areas. To perform stability analyses under rainfall conditions, the soil–water characteristic curves (SWCC) are significant. However, the studies for SWCC of wide-grading gravelly soils are rare. In order to investigate the effects of initial dry density and grain size distribution on the SWCCs of wide-grading gravelly, a large-scale osmotic column, allowing the measurement of both volumetric water content and matric suction at various levels, was fabricated for a series of osmotic column tests. The test data were best-fitted to Van Genuchten equation using a least-squares algorithm and found that both the initial dry density and grain size distribution had a greater effect on the SWCCs. An increase in the initial dry density resulted in an increase in water retention capacity. The air entry value and residual volumetric water content increased linearly with increases in the initial dry density, whereas the maximum slope of SWCC decreased linearly with increases in the initial dry density. The air entry value and residual volumetric water content increased linearly with increases in the fine content (particle diameter <0.075), whereas the maximum slope increases linearly with increases in the effective size, d 10.

Keywords

Soil–water characteristic curves Wide-grading gravelly soil Initial dry density Grain size distribution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of CAS (KFJ-STS-ZDTP-015); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41661144028); and the West Light Foundation of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References

  1. Arya LM, Paris JF (1981) A physic-empirical model to predict soil moisture characteristics from particle-size distribution and bulk density data. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:1023–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arya LM, Leij FJ, Shouse PJ, van Genuchten MT (1999a) Relationship between the hydraulic conductivity function and the paticle-size distribution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1063–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arya LM, Leij FJ, van Genuchten MT, Shouse PJ (1999b) Scaling parameter to predict the soil water characteristics from particle-size distribution data. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:510–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbour SL (1998) The soil–water characteristic curve: a historical prospective. Can Geotech J 35:873–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baro PL, Sigurdso ER (2005) Time domain reflectometry laboratory calibration in travel time, bulk electrical conductivity, and effective frequency. Vadose Zone J 4:1020–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birle E, Heyer D, Vogt N (2008) Influence of the initial water content and dry density on the soil–water retention curve and the shrinkage behavior of a compacted clay. Acta Geotech 3:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Box JE, Taylor SA (1962) Influence of soil bulk density on matric potential. Soil Sci Soc Am J 26:119–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruckler LB, Angulo JP, Ruy R (2002) Testing an infiltration method for estimating soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:384–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell GS, Gardner WH (1971) Psychometric measurement of soil water potential: temperature and bulk density effects. Soil Sci Soc Am J 35:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins BD, Znidarcic D (2004) Stability analyses of rainfall induced landslides. J Geotech Geoenviron 130:362–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Croney D, Coleman JD (1954) Soil structure in relation to soil suction (pF). Eur J Soil Sci 5:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui YF, Zhou XJ, Guo CX (2017) Experimental study on the moving characteristics of fine grains in wide grading unconsolidated soil under heavy rainfall. J Mt Sci 14:417–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duong TV, Trinh VN, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Calon N (2013) Development of a large-scale infiltration column for studying the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated fouled ballast. Geotech Test J 36:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ekblad J, Isacsson U (2007) Time-domain Reflectometry measurements and soil–water characteristic curves of coarse granular materials used in road pavements. Can Geotech J 44:858–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fan G, Xing R, Zhang M (2012) Experimental study on permeability of the sandy gravel media with different gradation. J Taiyuan Uni Tech 43:373–383 (In Chinese, with English abstract) Google Scholar
  16. Fredlund DG, Xing A (1994) Equation for the soil–water characteristic curve. Can Geotech J 31:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gallage C, Uchimura T (2010) Effects of dry density and grain size distribution on soil–water characteristic curves of sandy soils. Soils Found 50:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu W, Xu Q, Wang GH, van Asch TWJ, Hicher PY (2015) Sensitivity of the initiation of debris flow to initial soil moisture. Landslides 12:1139–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Indrawan IGB, Rahardjo H, Leong EC (2006) Effects of coarse-grained materials on properties of residual soil. Eng Geol 82:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Iverson RM (1997) The physics of debris flows. Rev Geophys 35:245–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Iverson RM (2000) Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resour Res 36:1897–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krahn J, Fredlund DG (1972) On total, matric and osmotic suction. Soil Sci 114:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leong EC, Rahardjo H (1997) Review of soil–water characteristic curve equation. J Geotech Geoenviron ASCE 123:1106–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li AG, Tham LG, Yue ZQ, Lee CF, Law KT (2005) Comparison of field and laboratory soil–water characteristic curves. J Geotech Geoenviron ASCE 131:1176–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li JY, Yang Q, Li PY, Yang QL (2009) Experimental research on soil–water characteristic curve of remolded residual soils. Electron J Geotech 14:1–12Google Scholar
  26. Qi GQ, Huang RQ (2003) Study on genetic and mechanical analysis of debris flow based on unsaturated soils mechanics. Chin J Geol Hazard Control 14:12–15 (In Chinese, with Engish abstract) Google Scholar
  27. Rahardjo H, Alfrendo S, D’Amore GAR, Leong EC (2012) Soil–water characteristic curves of gap-graded soils. Eng Geol 125:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rahimi A, Rahardjo H, Leong EC (2010) Effect of hydraulic properties of soil on rainfall-induced slope failure. Eng Geol 114:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Song K, Yan E, Zhang GD, Lu SQ, Yi QL (2015) Effect of hydraulic properties of soil and fluctuation velocity of reservoir water on landslide stability. Environ Earth Sci 74:5319–5329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun DA, Sheng DC, Xu YF (2007) Collapse behavior of unsaturated compacted soil with different initial density. Can Geotech J 44:673–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Topp GC, Davis JL, Annan AP (1980) Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial transmission lines. Water Resour Res 16:574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Van Genuchten MT (1980) A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vanapalli SK, Fredlund DG, Pufahl DE, Cliffton AW (1996) Model for the prediction of shear strength with respect to soil suction. Can Geotech J 33:379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vanapalli SK, Fredlund DG, Pufahl DE (1999) The influence of soil structure and stress history on the soil–water characteristics of a compacted till. Geotechnique 49:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhao Y, Cui Y, Zhou H, Feng X, Huang Z (2017) Effects of void ratio and grain size distribution on water retention properties of compacted infilled joint soils. Soils Found 57:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhou AN, Sheng D, Carter JP (2012) Modelling the effect of initial density on soil–water characteristic curves. Geotechnique 62:669–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations