Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 813–826 | Cite as

Water Curtain System Pre-design for Crude Oil Storage URCs: A Numerical Modeling and Genetic Programming Approach

  • Ebrahim Ghotbi RavandiEmail author
  • Reza Rahmannejad
  • Saeed Karimi-Nasab
  • Amir Sarrafi
  • Amir Raoof
Original paper


In this paper the main criteria of the water curtain system for unlined rock caverns (URCs) is described. By the application of numerical modeling and genetic programming (GP), a method for water curtain system pre-design for Iranian crude oil storage URCs (common dimension worldwide) is presented. A comprehensive set of numerical simulations is performed using the finite element based commercial software (COMSOL 5.1) where the results are used as database for genetic programming. Describing equations of water inflow to the filled and empty caverns and water production rate of water curtain boreholes are generated using GP. By equating the proposed equations to each other, water curtain system can be pre-designed. Relative error of the generated GP equations shows their ability and accuracy. Applying a standard regression coefficient method, sensitivity analysis of parameters related to water curtain performance and water inflow to the caverns is performed as well. The results help the design of the water curtain system for crude oil storage caverns worldwide.


Underground storage Unlined rock caverns (URC) Water curtain system Genetic programming (GP) Numerical modeling 



The authors would like to thank Iranian Oil Terminals Company for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ebrahim Ghotbi Ravandi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reza Rahmannejad
    • 2
  • Saeed Karimi-Nasab
    • 2
  • Amir Sarrafi
    • 3
  • Amir Raoof
    • 4
  1. 1.Mineral Industries Research CenterShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran
  2. 2.Mining Engineering DepartmentShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering DepartmentShahid Bahonar University of KermanKermanIran
  4. 4.Earth Sciences DepartmentUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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