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Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 793–811 | Cite as

Numerical Evaluation of Pile Response Under Combined Lateral and Axial Loading

  • Triada E. Zormpa
  • Emilios M. ComodromosEmail author
Original paper
  • 293 Downloads

Abstract

Piled foundations are frequently subjected to simultaneous axial and lateral loadings. However, the interaction effects of the one loading on the other are, in most cases, disregarded for the sake of simplicity. With the aim of evaluating this effect, a detailed research work on the response of a single pile under simultaneous application of axial and lateral loading was carried out. A qualitative assessment of the effect was initially attempted and the effect was afterwards quantified, based on the results of an intensive three-dimensional parametric numerical analysis. The influence arising from pile head fixity and the second order phenomenon was examined, while the post-peak behaviour was also considered using a strain hardening/softening constitutive law. Interesting conclusions have been drawn, providing a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the effect on clayey and sandy soils. It was also found that no loading interaction effect is developed, when ultimate limit state is applied for a piled foundation design. On the contrary, when the serviceability limit state is applied and if the pile capacity in both lateral and axial loading is simultaneously reached, a reduction in the pile axial capacity is observed in the case of clayey soils. On the contrary, in the case of sandy soils the action of a lateral load is leading to an increase of pile axial capacity.

Keywords

Combined pile loading Lateral pile loading Axial pile loading Pile response Numerical analysis 

List of symbols

A

Area associated with an interface node

bi

Boolean number associated with interface element i

C

Pile perimeter

ca

Soil–pile adhesion

cu

Undrained shear strength

cu;ini

Undrained shear strength before yielding occurs (strain softening/hardening model)

cu;mob

Mobilised undrained shear strength (strain softening/hardening model)

Epicentral angle at a pile segment (in radians)

D

Pile diameter

E

Soil modulus of elasticity

Ep

Pile modulus of elasticity

fs

Shear stress at the soil–pile interface

Fn

Normal force at the interface

Fsi

Shear force at the interface

Fsmax

Limiting shear force (interface element)

Η

Horizontal pile load

Hult-f

Ultimate lateral fixed-head pile load capacity

Hult-r

Ultimate lateral free-head pile load capacity

kn

Interface normal stiffness

ks

Interface shear stiffness

Ko

Earth pressure coefficient at rest

L

Pile length

Lk

Length of a pile segment

N

Axial pile load

Nult

Ultimate axial pile load capacity

R

Pile section radius

Rs

Shaft resistance of the pile

SLS

Serviceability limit state

un

Normal penetration of an interface node

usi

Shear displacement at interface node i

ULS

Ultimate limit state

Δusi

Incremental relative shear displacement interface vector

γ

Soil unit weight

γR

Partial factor for a resistance

εp

Plastic portion of the second invariant of the shear strain tensor (strain softening/hardening model)

εpc

Plastic portion of the second invariant of the shear strain tensor at critical state initiation (strain softening/hardening model)

v

Poisson’s ratio for the soil

vp

Poisson’s ratio for the pile

σnr

Interface normal stress

σsi

Interface shear stress

φ

Soil angle of internal friction

φcr

Soil angle of internal friction corresponding to critical state (strain softening/hardening model)

φini

Soil angle of internal friction prior to soil yielding (strain softening/hardening model)

φmob

Mobilised soil angle of internal friction (strain softening/hardening model)

φa

Angle of friction at the soil–pile interface

φa;r

Residual angle of friction at the soil–pile interface after frictional shear failure (strain softening/hardening model)

ψ

Dilation angle

ψini

Dilation angle of friction before yielding occurs (strain softening/hardening model)

ψmob

Mobilised dilation angle of friction (strain softening/hardening model)

ωi

Epicentral angle of interface element i (in radians)

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of ThessalyVólosGreece

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