Geotechnical and Geological Engineering

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 783–791 | Cite as

Experimental Investigation on the Movement of Soil and Piles in Transparent Granular Soils

  • Feng Yin
  • Yang XiaoEmail author
  • Hanlong Liu
  • Hang Zhou
  • Jian Chu
Original paper


In order to visually observe the displacement characteristics of internal soil, model tests on the penetration of six flat-ended piles in synthetic transparent soil were carried out. The granular-soil particles were registered by laser speckles, thus the penetration process of the piles was visualized. The movement of pile-soil interaction was determined by comparing the images before and after penetrations. Based on the test results, the vertical and horizontal displacement of the granular caused by a sequence of jacked piles was discussed. The sheltering effect of the adjacent piles during the penetration of the follow-up pile was analyzed. The responses of the granular soils during the penetration of piles were discussed, and test data was compared with DEM analyses. The pile heave at different stages of the penetration and the ground uplift at different positions were evaluated and compared.


Transparent granular soil Model tests Non-intrusive measurement Soil movements Piles 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51678094 and 51509024) and the Project funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M590864).


  1. Alonso EE, Sauter S, Ramon A (2015) Pile groups under deep expansion: a case history. Can Geotech J 52(8):1111–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashford SA, Juirnarongrit T, Sugano T, Hamada M (2006) Soil–pile response to blast-induced lateral spreading. I: field test. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 132(2):152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chow Y, Teh C (1990) A theoretical study of pile heave. Geotechnique 40(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ezzein FM, Bathurst RJ (2011) A transparent sand for geotechnical laboratory modeling. Geotech Test J 34(6):590–601Google Scholar
  5. Gill DR, Lehane BM (2001) An optical technique for investigating soil displacement patterns. Geotech Test J 24(3):324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haeri SM, Kavand A, Rahmani I, Torabi H (2012) Response of a group of piles to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading by large scale shake table testing. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 38:25–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hwang JH, Liang N, Chen CH (2001) Ground response during pile driving. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 127(11):939–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iskander MG (1997) Transparent soils to image 3D flow and deformations. Imaging technologies: techniques and applications in civil engineering. In: Second international conference. ASCE, pp 255–264Google Scholar
  9. Iskander M, Lai J, Oswald C, Mannheimer R (1994) Development of a transparent material to model the geotechnical properties of soils. Geotech Test J 17(4):255–264Google Scholar
  10. Iskander MG, Liu J, Sadek S (2002a) Transparent amorphous silica to model clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 128(3):262–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iskander MG, Sadek S, Liu J (2002b) Optical measurement of deformation using transparent silica gel to model sand. Int J Phys Modell Geotech 2(4):13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kirkpatrick W, Belshaw D (1968) On the interpretation of the triaxial test. Geotechnique 18(3):336–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kong GQ, Cao ZH, Zhou H, Sun XJ (2015) Analysis of piles under oblique pullout load using transparent-soil models. Geotech Test J 38(5):725–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kong GQ, Zhou LD, Wang ZT, Yang G, Li H (2016) Shear modulus and damping ratios of transparent soil manufactured by fused quartz. Mater Lett 182:257–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Larisch M, Arnold M, Uhlig M, Schwiteilo E, Williams D, Scheuermann A (2013) Stress and displacement monitoring of auger displacement piles. In: PILE 2013: international conference on state of the art of pile foundation and pile case histories. Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  16. Lobo-Guerrero S, Vallejo LE (2005) DEM analysis of crushing around driven piles in granular materials. Geotechnique 55(8):617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lobo-Guerrero S, Vallejo LE (2007) Influence of pile shape and pile interaction on the crushable behavior of granular materials around driven piles: DEM analyses. Granular Matter 9:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Massarsch KR, Wersäll C (2013) Cumulative lateral soil displacement due to pile driving in soft clay. In: Sound geotechnical research to practice. ASCE, pp 462–479Google Scholar
  19. Ni Q, Hird C, Guymer I (2009) Physical modelling of pile penetration in clay using transparent soil and particle image velocimetry. Géotechnique 60(2):121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Poulos HG, Davis EH (1980) Pile foundation analysis and design. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Sadek S, Iskander MG, Liu J (2002) Geotechnical properties of transparent silica. Can Geotech J 39(1):111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shi B, Murakami Y, Wu Z, Chen J, Inyang H (1999) Monitoring of internal failure evolution in soils using computerization X-ray tomography. Eng Geol 54(3):321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tho KK, Chen Z, Leung CF, Chow YK (2014) Enhanced analysis of pile flexural behavior due to installation of adjacent pile. Can Geotech J 51(6):705–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. White DJ, Bolton MD, Take WA (2003) Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Géotechnique 53(7):619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wong RC (1999) Mobilized strength components of Athabasca oil sand in triaxial compression. Can Geotech J 36(4):718–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xiao Y, Liu H (2017) Elastoplastic constitutive model for rockfill materials considering particle breakage. Int J Geomech 17(1):04016041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Xiao Y, Liu H, Chen Y, Jiang J (2014) Bounding surface model for rockfill materials dependent on density and pressure under triaxial stress conditions. Int J Geomech 140(4):04014002. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000702 Google Scholar
  28. Xiao Y, Yin F, Liu HL, Chu J, Zhang WG (2017a) Model tests on soil movement during the installation of piles in transparent granular soil. Int J Geomech 17(4):06016027. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000788 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiao Y, Sun YF, Yin F, Liu HL, Xiang J (2017b) Constitutive modeling for transparent granular soils. Int J Geomech. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000681 Google Scholar
  30. Xiao Y, Sun YF, Liu HL, Xiang J, Ma QF, Long LH (2017c) Model predictions for behaviors of sand-nonplastic-fines mixtures using equivalent-skeleton void-ratio state index. Sci China Technol Sci. doi: 10.1007/s11431-016-9024-9 Google Scholar
  31. Zhao H, Ge L, Luna R (2010) Low viscosity pore fluid to manufacture transparent soil. Geotech Test J 33(6):463–468Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Yin
    • 1
  • Yang Xiao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Hanlong Liu
    • 1
  • Hang Zhou
    • 1
  • Jian Chu
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.China Key Laboratory of New Technology for Construction of Cities in Mountain Area (Chongqing University)Ministry of EducationChongqingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and ControlChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringConstruction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations