Skip to main content

Effect of Strain Rate on the Strength Characteristics of Soil–Lime Mixture


The effects of rate of strain on strength and deformation characteristics of soil–lime were investigated. Five strain rates (0.1, 0.8, 2.0, 4.0 and 7.0 %/min), five lime contents (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 %) by dry soil weight and three cell pressures (100, 200 and 340 kN/m2) were carried. Triaxial tests, under unconsolidated condition, were used to study the effect of strain rate on strength and initial modulus of elasticity of soil and soil–lime mixture after two curing periods 7 and 21 days, respectively. A total of 405 triaxial specimens have been tested, where 225 specimens have been tested with first curing period (7 days). The testing program includes nine specimens for each strain rate, and each lime content was carried out, including natural soil with zero lime content. Another set of triaxial tests with a total of 180 specimens for the second curing period (21 days) was prepared at optimum moisture content, and the corresponding maximum dry density was also tested. The effects of strain rate and curing period on each of stress–strain behavior, type of failure, deviator stress at failure, cohesion and angle of internal friction and initial modulus of elasticity were studied thoroughly for the natural soil as well as soil–lime mixtures. For natural soil, the test results showed that the undrained shear strength, the initial modulus of elasticity and the cohesion increase significantly as the strain rate increase, while for soil–lime mixture at different curing periods, the undrained shear strength, initial modulus of elasticity and the cohesion increases to a maximum and then decreases as the strain rate and lime content increase. Also, the same variables and angle of internal friction increase with increasing curing period.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  • Abraham DRJ, Martinez-Vasquez JJ, Santamarina JC (2009) Strain-rate effects in Mexico City soil. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135(2):300–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Saoudi NK (1974) Effect of method of compaction on soil–lime mixtures. MSc. Thesis, civil engineering department, college of engineering, university of Baghdad

  • Amu O, Bamisaye F, Komolafe L (2011) The suitability and lime stabilization requirement of some lateritic soil samples as pavement. Int J Pure Appl Sci Technol 2(1):29–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Aubeny CP, Shi H (2007) Effect of rate-dependent soil strength on cylinders penetrating into soft clay. IEEE J Ocean Eng 32(1):49–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chatterjee S, Randolph MF, White DJ (2012) The effects of penetration rate and strain softening on the vertical penetration resistance of seabed pipelines. Géotechnique 62(7):573–582

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dash SK, Hussain M (2011) Lime stabilization of soils: reappraisal. J Mater Civil Eng 24(6):707–714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Einav I, Randolph M (2006) Effect of strain rate on mobilised strength and thickness of curved shear bands. Geótechnique 56(7):501–504

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geiman CM (2005) “Stabilization of Soft Clay Subgrades in Virginya Phase Laboratory Study”. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering

  • Hebib S, Farrell ER (2003) Some experiences on the stabilization of Irish peats. Can Geotech J 40(1):107–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Indraratna B, Ni J, Geng XY, Rujikiatkamjorn C (2012) The effect of the strain rate on soft soil behaviour under cyclic loading. In: Proceedings of the 11th Australia New Zealand conference on geomechanics: ground engineering in a changing world. Engineers Australia, Australia, pp 1340–1345

  • Ji-ru Z, Xing C (2002) Stabilization of expansive soil by lime and fly ash. J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 17(4):73–77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jung BC (2005) Modeling of strain rate effects on clays in simple shear. MSc Thesis, Texas A&M University, USA

  • Lafta SH (2002) Effect of strain rate on strength of Alrustamia soil stabilized with cement dust. MSc Dissertation, Building and Construction Department, University of Technology, Baghdad

  • Ouf MS (2012) Effect of using Pozzolanic materials on the properties of Egyptian soil. Life Sci J 9(1):554–560

    Google Scholar 

  • Sorensen K, Baudet B, Simpson B (2010) Influence of strain rate and acceleration on the behaviour of reconstituted clays at small strains. Geotechnique 60(10):751–763

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tsutsumi A, Tanaka H (2012) Combined effects of strain rate and temperature on consolidation behavior of clayey soils. Soils Found 52(2):207–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Radhi Alzubaidi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Alzubaidi, R., Lafta, S.H. Effect of Strain Rate on the Strength Characteristics of Soil–Lime Mixture. Geotech Geol Eng 31, 1317–1327 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Soil stabilization
  • Strain rate
  • Lime content
  • Curing time
  • Cell pressure