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Ground Support Terminology and Classification: An Update

Abstract

It is nearly two decades since a formal terminology and a classification scheme were proposed for rock reinforcement hardware and applications. That combined framework was used to clearly identify concepts associated with reinforcement mechanics in a manner that was consistent and robust enough to characterise all reinforcement systems. Since that time, many new reinforcement systems have been developed and it can be shown that they all fit within the proposed classification scheme. Most recently, a complementary new terminology and a classification scheme for surface support, also based on mechanics, have been developed. This framework is invaluable in the design of ground support schemes, the planning of testing and instrumentation programs and the development of software used to simulate the static and dynamic response of rock reinforcement and support systems. It will be shown that the terminology and classification schemes are valid today and will so remain into the future because of the laws of mechanics.

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Acknowledgments

The writers have evolved the understanding outlined in this document over many years of industrial research collaboration with various organizations and wish to acknowledge some of the many persons whom have influenced and assisted in the synthesis of the concepts embodied within this document. In approximate chronological order they are Tom Lang, George Worotnicki, Laurie Alexander, Peter Fuller, Glynn Cadby, Steve Matthews, Peter O’Bryan, Mike Fabjancyzk, Volker Tillmann, Steve Bywater, Warwick Hutchins, Ted Brown, Evert Hoek and John Player.

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Thompson, A.G., Villaescusa, E. & Windsor, C.R. Ground Support Terminology and Classification: An Update. Geotech Geol Eng 30, 553–580 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-012-9495-4

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Keywords

  • Ground support
  • Rock reinforcement
  • Rock support
  • Testing
  • Design
  • Installation
  • Instrumentation
  • Monitoring
  • Underground mining