Advertisement

Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 95, Issue 2, pp 203–218 | Cite as

Integrated management practices significantly affect N2O emissions and wheat–maize production at field scale in the North China Plain

  • Yuefeng Shi
  • Wenliang Wu
  • Fanqiao Meng
  • Zhihua Zhang
  • Liang Zheng
  • Dapeng Wang
Original Article

Abstract

In the North China Plain, a field experiment was conducted to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes from a typical winter wheat–summer maize rotation system under five integrated agricultural management practices: conventional regime [excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization, flood irrigation, and rotary tillage before wheat sowing; CON], recommended regime 1 (balanced N fertilization, decreased irrigation, and deep plowing before wheat sowing; REC-1), recommended regime 2 (balanced N fertilization, decreased irrigation, and no tillage; REC-2), recommended regime 3 (controlled release N fertilizer, decreased irrigation, and no tillage; REC-3), and no N fertilizer (CK). Field measurements indicated that pulse emissions after N fertilization and irrigation contributed 19–49 % of annual N2O emissions. In contrast to CON (2.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1), the other treatments resulted in significant declines in cumulative N2O emissions, which ranged from 0.96 to 1.76 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1, indicating that the recommended practices (e.g., balanced N fertilization, controlled release N fertilizer, and decreased irrigation) offered substantial benefits for both sustaining grain yield and reducing N2O emissions. Emission factors of N fertilizer were 0.21, 0.22, 0.23, and 0.37 % under CON, REC-1, REC-3, and REC-2, respectively. Emissions of N2O during the freeze–thaw cycle period and the winter freezing period accounted for 9.7 and 5.1 % of the annual N2O budget, respectively. Thus, we recommend that the monitoring frequency should be increased during the freeze–thaw cycle period to obtain a proper estimate of total emissions. Annual CH4 fluxes from the soil were low (−1.54 to −1.12 kg CH4-C ha−1 year−1), and N fertilizer application had no obvious effects on CH4 uptake. Values of global warming potential were predominantly determined by N2O emissions, which were 411 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 in the CK and 694–982 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 in the N fertilization regimes. When comprehensively considering grain yield, global warming potential intensity values in REC-1, REC-2, and REC-3 were significantly lower than in CON. Meanwhile, grain yield increased slightly under REC-1 and REC-3 compared to CON. Generally, REC-1 and REC-3 are recommended as promising management regimes to attain the dual objectives of sustaining grain yield and reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North China Plain.

Keywords

CH4 Freeze–thaw cycles Global warming potential Integrated management practices N2Yield 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Shuxian Chen, Rongchao Liu, Hui Ye, and Fengmei Geng for their tireless efforts in managing the plots and taking gas samples. This study was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (30870414 and 31170489), the Non-profit Research Foundation for Agriculture (201103039), and the Climate Food and Farming Network (CLIFF). We also thank anonymous referees for their helpful comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript.

References

  1. Adviento-Borbe MAA, Haddix ML, Binder DL, Walters DT, Dobermann A (2007) Soil greenhouse gas fluxes and global warming potential in four high-yielding maize systems. Glob Change Biol 13:1972–1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bureau of Statistics of China (2011) China statistical yearbook. China Statistics Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  3. Cui ZL, Zhang FS, Chen XP, Miao YX, Li JL, Shi LW, Xu JF, Ye YL, Liu CS, Yang ZP, Zhang Q, Huang SM, Bao DJ (2008a) On-farm estimation of indigenous nitrogen supply for site-specific nitrogen management in the North China Plain. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 81:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cui ZL, Zhang FS, Chen XP, Miao YX, Li JL, Shi LW, Xu JF, Ye YL, Liu CS, Yang ZP, Zhang Q, Huang SM, Bao DJ (2008b) On-farm evaluation of an in-season nitrogen management strategy based on soil Nmin test. Field Crops Res 105:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui F, Yan GX, Zhou ZX, Zheng XH, Deng J (2012) Annual emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from a wheat–maize cropping system on a silt loam calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Soil Biol Biochem 48:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dalal RC, Allen DE, Livesley SJ, Richards G (2008) Magnitude and biophysical regulators of methane emission and consumption in the Australian agricultural, forest, and submerged landscapes: a review. Plant Soil 309:43–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davidson EA, Keller M, Erickson HE, Verchot LV, Veldkamp E (2000) Testing a conceptual model of soil emissions of nitrous and nitric oxides. Bioscience 50:667–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ding WX, Cai Y, Cai ZC, Yagi K, Zheng XH (2007) Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively cultivated maize–wheat rotation soil in the North China Plain. Sci Total Environ 373:501–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding WX, Yan HY, Cai ZC (2011) Impact of urease and nitrification inhibitors on nitrous oxide emissions from fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain. Biol Fertil Soil 47:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dobbie KE, McTaggart IP, Smith KA (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors. J Geophys Res 104:26891–26899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dörr H, Katruff L, Levin I (1993) Soil texture parameterization of the methane uptake in aerated soils. Chemosphere 26:697–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forster P, Ramaswamy V (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergoverment panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK, pp 130–234Google Scholar
  13. Garland GM, Suddick E, Burger M, Horwath WR, Six J (2011) Direct N2O emissions following transition from conventional till to no-till in a cover cropped Mediterranean vineyard (Vitis vinifera). Agric Ecosyst Environ 141:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Granli T, Bøckman OC (1994) Nitrous oxide from agriculture. Norw J Agr Sci 12(Suppl):1–128Google Scholar
  15. Hodge A, Fitter AH (2010) Substantial nitrogen acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from organic material has implications for N cycling. PNAS 107:13754–13759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ju XT, Xing GX, Chen XP, Zhang SL, Zhang LJ, Liu XJ, Cui ZL, Yin B, Christie P, Zhu ZL, Zhang FS (2009) Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. PNAS 106:3041–3046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ju XT, Lu X, Gao ZL, Chen XP, Su F, Kogge M, Römheld V, Christie P, Zhang FS (2011) Processes and factors controlling N2O production in an intensively managed low carbon calcareous soil under sub-humid monsoon conditions. Environ Pollut 159:1007–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kremen A, Bear J, Shavit U, Shaviv A (2005) Model demonstrating the potential for coupled nitrification denitrification in soil aggregates. Environ Sci Technol 39:4180–4188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li CS, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Cai ZC, Zheng XH, Huang Y, Tsuruta H, Boonjawat J, Lantin R (2004) Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from rice-based production systems: sensitivity and upscaling. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 18:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li C, Salas W, DeAngelo B, Rose S (2006) Assessing alternatives for mitigating net greenhouse gas emissions and increasing yields from rice production in China over the next twenty years. J Environ Qual 35:1554–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li KH, Gong YM, Song W, Lv JL, Chang YH, Hu YK, Tian CY, Christie P, Liu XJ (2012) No significant nitrous oxide emissions during spring thaw under grazing and nitrogen addition in an alpine grassland. Glob Change Biol 18:2546–2554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu XJ, Ju XT, Zhang FS, Pan JR, Christie P (2003) Nitrogen dynamics and budgets in a winter wheat-maize cropping system in the North China Plain. Field Crop Res 83:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu CY, Wang K, Meng SX, Zheng XH, Zhou ZX, Han SH, Chen DL, Yang ZP (2011) Effects of irrigation, fertilization and crop straw management on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from a wheat-maize rotation field in northern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 140:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Livesley SJ, Grover S, Hutley LB, Jamali H, Butterbach-Bahl K, Fest B, Beringer J, Arndt SK (2011) Seasonal variation and fire effects on CH4, N2O and CO2 exchange in savanna soils of northern Australia. Agric For Meteorol 151:1440–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McSwiney CP, Robertson GP (2005) Nonlinear response of N2O flux to incremental fertilizer addition in a continuous maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Glob Change Biol 11:1712–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meng L, Ding WX, Cai ZC (2005) Long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emissions, soil quality and crop production in a sandy loam soil. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2037–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mosier AR, Halvorson AD, Reule CA, Liu XJ (2006) Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in irrigated cropping systems in northeastern Colorado. J Environ Qual 35:1584–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nishimura S, Akiyama H, Sudo S, Fumoto T, Cheng W, Yagi K (2011) Combined emission of CH4 and N2O from a paddy field was reduced by preceding upland crop cultivation. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 57:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Okuda H, Noda K, Sawamoto T, Tsuruta H, Hirabayashi T, Yonemeoto JY, Kazuyuki Y (2007) Emission of N2O and CO2 and uptake of CH4 in soil from a satsuma mandarin orchard under mulching cultivation in central Japan. Jpn Soc Hort Sci 76:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Potter CS, Davidson EA, Verchot LV (1996) Estimation of global biogeochemical controls and seasonality in soil methane consumption. Chemosphere 32:2219–2246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Powlson DS, Goulding KWT, Willison TW, Webster CP, Hütsch BW (1997) The effect of agriculture on methane oxidation in soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Priemé A, Christensen S (2001) Natural perturbations, drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles, and the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from farmed organic soils. Soil Biol Biochem 33:2083–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ren HR, Luo Y (2004) The experimental research on the water-consumpion of winter wheat and summer maize in the Northwest Plain of Shandong Province (In Chinese). J Irrig Drain 23:37–39Google Scholar
  34. Rex A, Omonode DR, Smith AG, Tony JV (2011) Soil nitrous oxide emissions in corn following three decades of tillage and rotation treatments. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:152–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Robertson GP, Grace PR (2004) Greenhouse gas fluxes in tropical and temperate agriculture: the need for a full-cost accounting of global warming potentials. Environ Develop Sustain 6:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Röver M, Heinemeyer O, Kaiser EA (1998) Microbial induced nitrous oxide emissions from an arable soil during winter. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1859–1865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scheer C, Wassmann R, Kienzler K, Ibragimov N, Eschanov R (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Aral Sea Basin, Uzbekistan: influence of nitrogen applications and irrigation practices. Soil Biol Biochem 40:290–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scheer C, Grace PR, Rowlings DW, Payero J (2012) Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated wheat in Australia: impact of irrigation management. Plant Soil 359:351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schellenberg DL, Alsina MM, Muhammad S, Stockert CM, Wolff MW, Sanden BL, Brown PH, Smart DR (2012) Yield-scaled global warming potential from N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation for almond (Prunus dulcis) irrigated with nitrogen fertilizers on arid land. Agric Ecosyst Environ 155:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shang QY, Yang XX, Gao CM, Wu PP, Liu JJ, Xu YC, Shen QR, Zou JW, Guo SW (2011) Net annual global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in Chinese double rice-cropping systems: a 3-year field measurement in long-term fertilizer experiments. Glob Change Biol 17:2196–2210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Six J, Ogle ST, Breidt FJ, Conant R, Mosier AR, Paustian K (2004) The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practiced in the long term. Glob Change Biol 10:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z et al (2007) Agriculture. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR et al (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 497–540Google Scholar
  43. Smith J, Wagner-Riddle C, Dunfield K (2010) Season and management related changes in the diversity of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria over winter and spring. Appl Soil Ecol 44:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Snyder CS, Bruulsema TW, Jensen TL, Fixen PE (2009) Review of greenhouse gas emissions from crop production systems and fertilizer management effects. Agric Ecosyst Environ 133:247–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stefanson RC (1973) Evolution patterns of nitrous oxide and nitrogen in sealed soil-plant systems. Soil Biol Biochem 5:167–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vilain G, Garnier J, Tallec G, Cellier P (2010) Effect of slope position and land use on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Seine Basin, France). Agric For Meteorol 150:1192–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vitousek PM, Howarth RW (1991) Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: how can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13:87–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wagner-Riddle C, Hu QC, van Bochove E, Jayasundara S (2008) Linking nitrous oxide flux during spring thaw to nitrate denitrification in the soil profile. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:908–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang WJ, Dalal RC, Reeves SH, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2011) Greenhouse gas fluxes from an Australian subtropical cropland under long-term contrasting management regimes. Glob Change Biol 17:3089–3101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang DP, Wu WL, Gu SD, Meng FQ, Shi YF (2013) Water-saving effect under adjustment of cropping systems and optimization of water and nitrogen in high yield regions of North China (In Chinese). T Chin Soc Agric Eng 29:1–8Google Scholar
  51. Wolf B, Zheng XH, Brüggemann N, Chen WW, Dannenmann M, Han XG, Sutton MA, Wu HH, Yao ZS, Butterbach-Bahl K (2010) Grazing-induced reduction of natural nitrous oxide release from continental steppe. Nature 464:881–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yanai Y, Hirota T, Iwata Y, Nemoto M, Nagata O, Koga N (2011) Accumulation of nitrous oxide and depletion of oxygen in seasonally frozen soils in northern Japan-Snow cover manipulation experiments. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1779–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhai LM, Liu HB, Zhang JZ, Huang J, Wang BR (2011) Long-term application of organic manure and mineral fertilizer on N2O and CO2 emissions in a red soil from cultivated maize–wheat rotation in China (In Chinese). Agric Sci China 10:1748–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang ZX, Yu GR (2002) Countermeasures on sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources in high-yield grain area in North China: a case study in Huantai County, Shandong Province (In Chinese). Resour Sci 24:68–71Google Scholar
  55. Zhang YM, Chen DL, Zhang JB, Edis R, Hu CS, Zhu AN (2004) Ammonia volatilization and denitrification losses from an irrigated maize-wheat rotation field in the North China Plain. Pedosphere 14:533–540Google Scholar
  56. Zheng CY, Yu ZW, Ma XH (2008) Water consumption characteristic and dry matter accumulation and distribution in high-yielding wheat (In Chinese). Acta Agron Sinica 34:1450–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuefeng Shi
    • 1
  • Wenliang Wu
    • 1
  • Fanqiao Meng
    • 1
  • Zhihua Zhang
    • 2
  • Liang Zheng
    • 1
  • Dapeng Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Resources and Environmental SciencesChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Resources Science and TechnologyBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Rubber Research InstituteChinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture ScienceDanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations