Nitrogen and sulphur fertilization effect on leaching losses, nutrient balance and plant quality in a wheat–rapeseed rotation under a humid Mediterranean climate

Abstract

An unbalanced S and/or N fertilization may have low N and S use efficiency together with substantial negative implications for yield, nutrient losses and plant quality parameters. The effect of N and S fertilization and their interactions on N–S balances, on N–S losses and on some plant quality parameters were investigated in a field experiment with a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)–wheat rotation (2005–2008). The study was conducted under humid Mediterranean climatic conditions on a potentially S deficient soil. The effects of N (0, 140, 180, 220 kg N ha−1 in wheat; 0, 100, 140, 180, 220 N ha−1 in rapeseed) combined with S fertilizer rates (0, 16 and 32 kg S ha−1 in wheat and 0, 30, 60 kg S ha−1 in rapeseed) were studied. Nitrogen fertilization increased yield by 55 % in wheat and 60 % in rapeseed, N concentration in grain and straw and S concentration in the grain of wheat. However, it led to a reduction in the S concentration of straw and the oil content of the rapeseed seed. The S application did not increase yield but had a positive effect on S concentration in the wheat straw. Glucosinolate concentration, a potentially toxic secondary metabolite in rapeseed, was not influenced by N or S applications. Nitrate leaching tended to increase with N application while sulphate leaching decreased. A net N and S mineralization was observed in each growing season, except for the first year in which a net S immobilization was observed. To make N fertilizer recommendations, the N mineralization from the previous crop residues should be taken into account. For S fertilizer recommendations, N supply is the most important item both from a qualitative point of view (N/S ratio in wheat grain) and an environmental point of view (S leaching).

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN-INIA RTA2005-00219-C03-02) and the Department of the Environment, Regional planning, Agriculture and Fisheries of the Basque Government. The authors are grateful to the Department of Analytical Chemistry (Faculty of Pharmacy of the UPV) for the analysis of glucosinolates in the seed of rapeseed. We thank Tom Misselbrook for reviewing the English.

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Gallejones, P., Castellón, A., del Prado, A. et al. Nitrogen and sulphur fertilization effect on leaching losses, nutrient balance and plant quality in a wheat–rapeseed rotation under a humid Mediterranean climate. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 93, 337–355 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-012-9520-2

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Keywords

  • N leaching
  • S leaching
  • Crop rotation
  • Rapeseed quality
  • N mineralization
  • S mineralization