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Formal Methods in System Design

, Volume 49, Issue 1–2, pp 109–158 | Cite as

Organising LTL monitors over distributed systems with a global clock

  • Christian Colombo
  • Yliès FalconeEmail author
Article

Abstract

Users wanting to monitor distributed systems often prefer to abstract away the architecture of the system by directly specifying correctness properties on the global system behaviour. To support this abstraction, a compilation of the properties would not only involve the typical choice of monitoring algorithm, but also the organisation of submonitors across the component network. Existing approaches, considered in the context of LTL properties over distributed systems with a global clock, include the so-called orchestration and migration approaches. In the orchestration approach, a central monitor receives the events from all subsystems. In the migration approach, LTL formulae transfer themselves across subsystems to gather local information. We propose a third way of organising submonitors: choreography, where monitors are organised as a tree across the distributed system, and each child feeds intermediate results to its parent. We formalise choreography-based decentralised monitoring by showing how to synthesise a network from an LTL formula, and give a decentralised monitoring algorithm working on top of an LTL network. We prove the algorithm correct and implement it in a benchmark tool. We also report on an empirical investigation comparing these three approaches on several concerns of decentralised monitoring: the delay in reaching a verdict due to communication latency, the number and size of the messages exchanged, and the number of execution steps required to reach the verdict.

Keywords

Monitoring LTL Distributed system Orchestration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work reported in this article has been done in the context of the COST Action ARVI IC1402, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). The authors would like to thank Adrian Francalenza (U of Malta), Susanne Graf (Vérimag), and César Sanchez (IMDEA Madrid) for discussions the issue on simplifying \(\text{ LTL } \) formulae. The authors are grateful to the DataMill team at the University of Waterloo for providing us with such a nice experimentation platform. The authors gratefully thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions allowing to improve the quality of this paper.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of MaltaMsidaMalta
  2. 2.Université Grenoble Alpes, Inria, LIGGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

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