By using a language as accessible to as broad an audience as possible, in this paper we identify serious insufficiencies of the neutrino and quark hypotheses for the synthesis of the neutrons from protons and electrons inside stars according to the familiar reaction \({{\rm p}^+ + \bar {\nu} + {\rm e}^-\rightarrow {\rm n}}\) . We introduce, apparently for the first time, the hypothesis that the energy and spin needed for the synthesis of the neutron originate either from the environment or from the ether conceived as a universal medium with very high energy density via an entity here called *etherino*, denoted with the letter “*a*” (from the Latin aether), carrying mass and charge 0, spin \({1\over 2}\) and 0.78 MeV energy according to the synthesis \({{\rm p}^+ + {\rm a} + {\rm e}^-\rightarrow {\rm n}}\) . We identify the compatibility \({{\rm p}^+ + {\rm a} + {\rm e}^-\rightarrow {\rm n}\rightarrow {\rm p}^+ + {\rm e}^- + \bar \nu}\) and the incompatibility condition \({{\rm p}^+ + {\rm a} + {\rm e}^-\rightarrow {\rm n}\rightarrow {\rm p}^+ + {\rm e}^- + \bar{{\rm a}}}\) of the neutrino and etherino hypotheses, the latter representing the possible return of missing features to the ether, without being necessarily in conflict with neutrino experiments. We review the new structure model of the neutron and hadrons at large with massive physical constituents produced free in the spontaneous decays as permitted by the covering hadronic mechanics. We show its compatibility with the standard model when interpreted as only providing the final Mendeleev-type classification of hadrons. We point out basically new clean energies predicted by the new model. We indicate new experiments confirming the above studies although in a preliminary form. Finally, we conclude with the proposal of new experiments suggested for the much needed search of new clean energies.

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Santilli, R.M. The Etherino and/or the Neutrino Hypothesis.
*Found Phys* **37, **670–711 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10701-007-9122-z

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### Keywords

- Decays of heavy neutrinos
- ordinary neutrinos
- protons and neutrons