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Foundations of Science

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 415–426 | Cite as

Cosmological Black Holes and the Direction of Time

  • Gustavo E. Romero
  • Daniela Pérez
  • Federico G. López Armengol
Article

Abstract

Macroscopic irreversible processes emerge from fundamental physical laws of reversible character. The source of the local irreversibility seems to be not in the laws themselves but in the initial and boundary conditions of the equations that represent the laws. In this work we propose that the screening of currents by black hole event horizons determines, locally, a preferred direction for the flux of electromagnetic energy. We study the growth of black hole event horizons due to the cosmological expansion and accretion of cosmic microwave background radiation, for different cosmological models. We propose generalized McVittie co-moving metrics and integrate the rate of accretion of cosmic microwave background radiation onto a supermassive black hole over cosmic time. We find that for flat, open, and closed Friedmann cosmological models, the ratio of the total area of the black hole event horizons with respect to the area of a radial co-moving space-like hypersurface always increases. Since accretion of cosmic radiation sets an absolute lower limit to the total matter accreted by black holes, this implies that the causal past and future are not mirror symmetric for any spacetime event. The asymmetry causes a net Poynting flux in the global future direction; the latter is in turn related to the ever increasing thermodynamic entropy. Thus, we expose a connection between four different “time arrows”: cosmological, electromagnetic, gravitational, and thermodynamic.

Keywords

Black holes Irreversibility Cosmology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by Grant PIP 0338,(CONICET) and Grant AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P (Ministro de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, España).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo E. Romero
    • 1
  • Daniela Pérez
    • 1
  • Federico G. López Armengol
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR, CCT La Plata, CONICET)Buenos AiresArgentina

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