Foundations of Science

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 51–73 | Cite as

The Structures of Interactions: How to Explain the Gauge Groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3)

  • Thomas Görnitz
  • Uwe Schomäcker


It is very useful to distinguish between four types of interactions in nature: gravitation, and then electromagnetism, weak interaction and strong interaction. The mathematical structure of electromagnetism but also of weak and strong interaction could be understood as induced by a local gauge group. The associated groups are the unitary group in one dimension—U(1)—for electromagnetism, the special unitary group in two dimensions—SU(2)—for the weak interaction, and the special unitary group in three dimensions—SU(3)—for the strong interaction. The essence of this article is to give a “first-principles” explanation for the three gauge groups.


Gauge groups Electromagnetism Weak interaction Strong interaction Protyposis Abstract quantum information (AQI) bits Dynamic layering process Dynamic layering structure Information paradox 



The authors thank Jochen Schirmer for valuable advice and interesting suggestions and the referees for their helpful hints.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikGoethe Universität Frankfurt/MainMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Mathematische PhysikTechnische Universität BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

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