Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 177–180 | Cite as

The first metals in Mendeleiev’s Table: Part II. A new argument against the placement of hydrogen atop the alkali metal column

Article

Abstract

Every so often an experiment trying to give reliable evidence for a metallic hydrogen solid is reported. Such evidence is, however, not too convincing. As Eric Scerri has recently reiterated, “the jury is still out on that issue” (Scerri 2012). This search stems from the common spectroscopy shared by the hydrogen atom and all the alkali metal atoms, and perhaps is guided by a desire to place hydrogen atop the alkali metals, in Mendeleiev’s Table, reinforced by the fact pointed out by Scerri (The Periodic Table, its story and its significance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, 2012) that there is no other obvious place for hydrogen in said Table. But H2 is a light gas at room temperature, while Li, Na, K and the other alkali elements form solid metal crystals. At very low temperatures, of course, hydrogen solidifies, but it is formed by H2 molecules (see for example, Van Kranendonk in Solid hydrogen, Plenum Press, New York, 1983). Our purpose here is to use a new argument to break this impasse: “should H be grouped with the alkali metals with which it shares a common spectroscopy, but which solidifies in a completely different fashion?” This argument has been proposed before in a couple of papers in this journal to establish a similar question for He and the alkaline earths (Novaro in Found Chem 10:4, 2008, Ramírez-Solís and Novaro in Found Chem, 2012), as is discussed in “Precedents” section.

Keywords

Periodic Table Nonadditivity H3 

References

  1. Abreu, P.E., Varandas, A.J.C.: First principles calculation of the potential energy surface for the lowest-quartet state of H3 and modelling by the double many-body expansion method. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 2471–2480 (2000)Google Scholar
  2. Bunge, C. F., Ramírez-Solís, A., Hernández, R., Novaro, O.: Work in progressGoogle Scholar
  3. del Conde, G., García-Prieto, J., Novaro, O.: UHF study of multibody effects in small lithium clusters and their relevance to atom-surface interactions. Mol. Phys. 44, 477–489 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kołos, W., Leś, A.: Non-additive effects in the first-order interaction energy of hydrogen atoms. Chem. Phys. Lett. 14, 167–169 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kołos, J., Zuchowski, P.S., Rajchel, T., Kałasiński, G., Szczęśniak, M.M.: Nonadditive interactions in ns 2 and spin-polarized ns metal atom trimers. J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134302 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. Merrit, J.M., Bondybey, V.E., Heaven, M.C.: Beryllium dimer—caught in the act of bonding. Science 324, 1548 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Murrell, J.N., Varandas, A.J.C., Guest, M.F.: The potential energy surface for the lowest quartet state of H3. Mol. Phys. 31, 1129–1135 (1976)Google Scholar
  8. Novaro, O., Beltrán-López, V.: On the convergence of multibody expansions for short range intermolecular forces. A SCF calculation of He3 and He4 systems. J. Chem. Phys. 56, 815–819 (1972)Google Scholar
  9. Novaro, O., Kołos, W.: Nonadditive effects in small beryllium clusters. J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5066–5069 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Novaro, O.: On the rightful place for He within the periodic table. Found. Chem. 10, 4 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ramírez-Solís, A., Novaro, O.: The first metals in Mendeleiev’s table: further arguments to place He above Ne and not above Be. Found. Chem. (2012). doi:10.1007/s10698-012-9174-9
  12. Scerri, E.: The Periodic Table, its story and its significance. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2007), which represents the key source for the philosophical aspects of Mendeleiev’s organization of the chemical elementsGoogle Scholar
  13. Scerri, E.: Personal communication (2012)Google Scholar
  14. Soldán, P., Kvitas, M.T., Hutson, J.M.: Three-body nonadditive forces between spin-polarized alkali-metal atoms. Phys. Rev. A 67, 054702 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. Van Kranendonk, J.: Solid Hydrogen. Plenum Press, New York (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Varandas, A.J.C.: Intermolecular and intramolecular potentials. Adv. Chem. Phys. 74, 255 (1988)Google Scholar
  17. Wu, Y.S., Kuppermann, A., Anderson, J.B.: A very high accuracy potential energy surface for H3. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 929–937 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Física UNAMMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations