Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 229–237 | Cite as

Periodic patterns: the Group (n) and Group (n + 10) linkage

  • Geoff Rayner-CanhamEmail author


The early Periodic Tables displayed an 8-Group system. Though we now use an 18-Group array, the old versions were based on evidence of similarities between what we now label as Group (n) and the corresponding Group (n + 10). As part of a series on patterns in the Periodic Table, in this contribution, these similarities are explored for the first time in a systematic manner. Pourbaix (Eh–pH) diagrams have been found particularly useful in this context.


Periodic table Elements 



An anonymous referee is thanked for helpful comments which led to a significant improvement of the manuscript. In this study, the series of new consistent Pourbaix (Eh–pH) diagrams in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements by Schweizer and Pesterfield (2010) was a useful source of comparative information. For details on specific compounds, Patnaik’s Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals (2003) and Greenwood and Earnshaw’s Chemistry of the Elements (1997) were helpful.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grenfell Campus, Memorial UniversityCorner BrookCanada

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