Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 123–129 | Cite as

Isoelectronic series: a fundamental periodic property

Article

Abstract

The usefulness of isoelectronic series (same number of total electrons and atoms and of valence electrons) across Periods is often overlooked. Here we show the ubiquitousness of isoelectronic sets by means of matrices, arrays, and sequential series. Some of these series have not previously been identified. In addition, we recommend the use of the term valence-isoelectronic for species which differ in the number of core electrons and pseudo-isoelectronic for matching (n) and (n + 10) species.

Keywords

Isoelectronic Periodic table Valence-isoelectronic Pseudo-isoelectronic 

References

  1. Bickelhaupt, F.M., DeKock, R.L., Baerends, E.J.: The short N–F bond in N2F+ and how Pauli repulsion influences bond lengths. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 1500–1505 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carroll, L.: More Annotated Alice: Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There, with notes by M. Gardner, p. 253. Random House, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  3. Elliott, B.M., Boldyrev, A.I.: Ozonic acid and its ionic salts: Ab initio probing of the O4 2− dianion. Inorg. Chem. 43, 4109–4111 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenwood, N.N., Earnshaw, A.: Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  5. Huheey, J.E., Keitler, E.A., Keitler, R.L.: Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, p. 640. HarperCollins, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  6. LaCagnin, L.B., et al.: The carbon dioxide anion radical adduct in the perfused rat liver. Mol. Pharmacol. 33, 351–357 (1988)Google Scholar
  7. Langmuir, I.: The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41, 868–934 (1919)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Larsson, M., et al.: X-ray photoelectron, auger electron and ion fragment spectra of O2 and potential curves of O2 2+. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23, 1175–1195 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Moody, B.: Comparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edn, p. 51. Edward Arnold, London (1969)Google Scholar
  10. Penney, W.G., Sutherland, G.B.B.M.: The relation between the form, force constants and vibrational frequencies of triatomic species. Proc. R. Soc. (London) A156, 654 (1936)Google Scholar
  11. Rayner-Canham, G.W., Overton,T.L.: Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, 4th edn, p. 30. W.H. Freeman Publishing Co., New York (2006). The metals next to the semi-metals show differences in behaviour from ‘typical’ metals. In particular, they are amphoteric, readily forming oxyanions in basic solution, such as stannates. For this reason, one can use the term weak metals in contrast to the supermetals, a designation sometimes used for the low-density, highly reactive, alkali metalsGoogle Scholar
  12. Rayner-Canham, G., Oldford, M.: The chemical ‘knight’s move’ relationship: what is its significance? Foundations Chem. 9, 119–125 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rouvray, D.H., King, R.B. (eds.): The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century. Research Studies Press Ltd, Hertfordshire, England (2004)Google Scholar
  14. Sima, J.: Isoelectronic series: the stability of their members. J. Chem. Educ. 72, 310 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sir Wilfred Grenfell CollegeCorner BrookCanada

Personalised recommendations